What happened in 1993 Major News Stories include Pentium microprocessor introduced, Islamic Fundamentalists bomb World Trade Center, US and Russia sign the Start II treaty, Beanie Babies go on sale, Federal Agents raid religious cult in Waco TX, Earthquake and Tsunami Japan, Brush Fires destroy world's second largest national park Royal National Park in Australia, Ethnic fighting between Muslims and Croats in Bosnia, For the first time Islamic Fundamentalists bomb World Trade Center. A devastating tsunami, caused by an earthquake off Hokkaido, Japan kills 202 on the small island of Okushiri. The ever popular Beanie Babies are launched . In technology the first bagless vacuum cleaner is invented and Intel introduces the Pentium Processor.
United States President George H.W. Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign the START II (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) on January 3. The purpose of the treaty was to ban the use of MIRVs (Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles) on ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) which encouraged first-strike strategies. The U.S. Senate ratified the treaty in 1996 and Russia ratified it in 2000, but it never came into effect as Russia withdrew in 2002 after the U.S. withdrew from the ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) Treaty. The agreement was replaced by the SORT (Strategic Offensive Reductions) Treaty which mandated both the U.S. and Russia reduce their nuclear arsenals to between 1,700 and 2,000 warheads each.
More Information and Timeline for the Waco siege
1. February 28th 9:45 am The 76 ATF agents attempted to execute their search and arrest warrants for Koresh and specific followers on weapons charges on Sunday morning <
2. Four ATF agents (Steve Willis, Robert Williams, Todd McKeehan, and Conway Charles LeBleu) were killed during the raid. Another 16 were wounded. Five Branch Davidians were killed <
3. 11:30 am Sheriffs Lt. Lynch of the McLennan County Sheriff Dept. contacted the ATF and negotiated a ceasefire. The Branch Davidians allowed the ATF dead and wounded to be evacuated and held their fire during the ATF retreat. <
4. 19:30 David Koresh is interviewed by CNN. The FBI instructs CNN not to conduct further interviews. <
5. Koresh talks for about 20 minutes on KRLD Radio In Dallas, describing his beliefs and saying he is the most seriously wounded of the Branch Davidians. <
6. Jeff Jamar, head of the FBI's San Antonio field office takes command soon after as a result of the deaths of federal agents, placed in charge of the siege as Site Commander <
7. The FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) was headed by HRT Commander Richard Rogers <
8. The FBI cut Davidian communication to the outside world stopping Koresh from giving phone interviews with local news media <
9. The siege lasted 51 days with a team of 25 FBI negotiators who managed to facilitate the release of 19 children, ranging in age from five months to 12 years old, <
10. The children were interviewed by the FBI and Texas Rangers, Allegedly, the children had been physically and sexually abused long before the standoff. This was the key justification offered by the FBI (both to President Bill Clinton and to Attorney General Janet Reno) for launching tear gas attacks on the compound to force the Branch Davidians out. <
11. 98 people remained in the building including 23 children<
12. The FBI cut all power and water to the compound, forcing those inside to survive on rain water and stockpiled military MRE rations<
13. U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno approved recommendations by the FBI to mount an assault, after being told that conditions were deteriorating and that children were being abused inside the compound<
14. 5:55 AM April 19 FBI Hostage Rescue Team deploys two armored CEVs to the buildings. CEV1 goes to the left of the buildings, CEV2 to the right.<
15. 6:04 AM Armored vehicle with ram and delivery device to pump tear gas into building with pressurized air rips into front wall just left of front door, leaving a hole 8 feet high and 10 feet wide.<
16. 6:31 AM The entire building is filled with tear gas and the FBI fires additional plastic, nonincendiary tear gas rounds through windows<
17. 7:58 AM CEV2, with battering ram, rips hole into second floor of compound and then minutes later another hole is punched into the backside of one of the buildings of the compound<
18. 10:00 AM A man is seen waving a white flag on the southeast side of the compound. He is advised over loudspeakers that if he is surrendering he should come out. He does not. At the same time, a man believed to be Schneider comes out from the remains of the front door to retrieve the phone and phone line.
19. 12:07 AM A man is seen waving a white flag on the southeast side of the compound. He is advised over loudspeakers that if he is surrendering he should come out. He does not. At the same time, a man believed to be Schneider comes out from the remains of the front door to retrieve the phone and phone line.
20. 12:10 AM Flames spread quickly through entire building, fanned by high winds. The building burns very quickly.<
21. 12:30 AM Part of the roof collapses. Around this time, there are several further explosions and witnesses report the sound of gunfire, attributed by the FBI to live ammunition cooking off throughout the buildings because of fire.
22. 76 Branch Davidians died and nine survived the fire on April 19
From FBI recordings and observations it is believed that the Branch Davidians set fires and intended to die rather than be arrested and jailed. After multiple reports and investigation of the incedent Special Counsel Danforth concluded that the allegations by Branch Davidian survivors and relatives that the fire was started by the FBI were meritless.
NASA loses contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft during August, bringing an end to the mission. The Mars Observer spacecraft was a robotic space probe that had been launched during September of the previous year with the mission of studying the surface of the red planet, its atmosphere, climate, and the surrounding magnetic field. Contact with the probe was lost just before it was supposed to enter the orbit of Mars, so the mission effectively failed as it was unable to complete any of its mission objectives in respect to observing the planet. The development and launch of the spacecraft cost $980 million.
Yearly Inflation Rate USA2.96%
Year End Close Dow Jones Industrial Average 3654
Interest Rates Year End Federal Reserve 6.00%
Average Cost of new house $113,200.00
Average Income per year $31,230.00
Average Monthly Rent $532.00
Cost of a gallon of Gas $1.16
Movie Ticket $4.14
Average cost of new car $12,750.00
Loaf of Bread $1.57
Tuition to Harvard University $23,514.00
Below are some Prices for UK guides in Pounds Sterling
Average House Price 67,856
Gallon of Petrol 2.33
Yearly Inflation Rate UK 1.6%
Interest Rates Year End Bank of England 5.38%
FTSE 100 Average 3200
NASA’s STS-55 Space Shuttle mission comes to an end during May when the crew returned safely to Earth. During the mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia carried a crew of seven into space to conduct several experiments during orbit. The crew’s commander was Steven R. Nagel and the pilot was Terence T. Henricks. The mission carried the German Spacelab module and the crew performed about 88 experiments while in orbit. The mission was considered an overall success despite a few minor issues leading up the the launch and while in space.
1. Kim Campbell becomes the first female Prime Minister of Canada on June 25th.
2. Campbell made her bid for leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party following the announcement of former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's retirement in February of 1993.
3. She faced her first federal election on October 25 News Events, where the Progressive Conservative Party was defeated in a landslide election in favor of the Liberal Party with Jean Chretien as the leader.
4. While Campbell was considered popular during her short time as the Prime Minister, her predecessor’s unpopularity and her own frankness about the economy worked against her.
5. She left office on November 4th, 1993.
Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize during October of 1993. The two leaders were recognized for their successful efforts to end apartheid in South Africa and usher in a new era of fully representative democracy in the country. F.W. de Klerk was the President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and oversaw the dismantling of apartheid. Nelson Mandela was the President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, the leader of the African National Congress party, and an advocate for racial equality and reconciliation in the nation.
Space Shuttle Endeavour mission to repair an optical flaw in the Hubble Space Telescope.
More Information and Timeline for the Hubble Telescope Repair.
The Space Shuttle Endeavour launches on December 2nd of 1993 to complete its fifth mission. Its mission objective was to install COSTAR (Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement) on the Hubble Space Telescope to correct a flaw on a Mirror that had been causing some images to be out of focus. There were seven crew members and they conducted a record of five space walks to repair the telescope. The mission lasted until December 12th of 1993 and the crew was successful in installing COSTAR and adding some new instruments to the Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble had been originally placed into space on April 24th of 1990 and remains in operation.
NASA's STS-57 Space Mission is successfully completed during June and July.
More Information and Timeline for STS-57.
NASA’s STS-57 space mission successfully returned to Earth in July of 1993 after spending 9 days, 23 hours, 44 minutes, 54 seconds in space. The mission carried the six crew members Ronald Grabe, Brian Duffy, G. David Low, Nancy Sherlock, Peter Wisoff, and Janice Voss aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission was important in that it marked the first flight of pressurized lab, SPACEHAB, a commercially created laboratory, they also carried and conducted 22 experiments. The crew also captured the over 9,000 pound European Retrievable Carrier, an experiment carrying satellite that had been in space for about a year. Overall, the mission was successful in completing its objectives and returned home safely.
Bill Clinton President of the United States
Brady bill requiring background checks of prospective buyers is signed into law
Islamic Fundamentalists bomb World Trade Center
Ferry in Haiti sinks - over 1000 die
Several bombs explode in Bombay, India killing about 300
Severe Blizzard strikes the eastern U.S., bringing record snowfall and other severe weather all the way from Cuba to Québec
A magnitude 7.8 earthquake off Hokkaido, Japan launches a devastating tsunami, killing 202 on the small island of Okushiri, Hokkaido
Earthquake centered on Killari, Maharashtra, India kills nearly 10,000 people.
The Oil tanker MV Braer carrying 85,000 tonnes of crude oil runs aground on January 5th in hurricane force winds off the Shetland Islands and large amounts of crude oil spill into the North Sea causing an ecological disaster in the area.
Fighting occurs between Muslims and Croats in Bosnia
The United Nations sets up safe haven for Muslim Refugees in Srebrenica in Bosnia
The Maastricht Treaty signed on February 7th takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.
EU Farmers protest the reduction in agricultural subsidies due to Maastricht Treaty
In the United Kingdom, 11-year-olds Robert Thompson and Jon Venables are convicted of the child murder of 2-year-old James Bulger of Liverpool
Earthquake hits Flores, Indonesia - 2200 dead
Apartment building collapses in Malaysia killing 48
A report states 2.5 million people in Europe are homeless
Buckingham Palace opens its doors to the public
The IRA explodes a massive bomb in a parked Van in Bishopsgate in the heart of the City of London
An anti-abortion activist murders a doctor outside an abortion clinic
Russian Nuclear Accident at Tomask 7
Ben Johnson, is banned from athletics for life
The US and Soviet Union sign Start II reducing nuclear warheads by 3,500 each
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is signed into law by US President Bill Clinton
Yitzhak Rabin ( Israel ) and Yasser Arafat ( PLO ) sign peace agreement on September 13th on White House lawn.
Harley Davidson Motorcycles are 90 years old
The tennis player Monica Seles is stabbed by a spectator during a quarter final tennis match in Hamburg by Günter Parche, an obsessed fan of Steffi Graf
Ty Warner USA launches the first Beanie Babies
Worst Brush Fires in Australian History destroy the world's second largest national park Royal National Park
Slovakia Gains Independence when Czechoslovakia divides into the Czech Republic and Slovakia
Two former police officers are convicted of violating the civil rights of beaten motorist Rodney King.
The Pentium microprocessor introduced by Intel.
Windows NT 3.1 released by Microsoft
The World Wide Web was born at CERN
Dyson sells the first bagless cyclonic Vacuum Cleaner
World Health Organization W.H.O. estimates 14 million people worldwide infected with the AIDS Virus
The Debian GNU/Linux distribution is founded by Ian Murdock.
Space Shuttle Endeavour mission to repair an optical flaw in the Hubble Space Telescope.
The first cloning of a Human Embryo by 2 American Scientists.
US Drops SDI initiative
US and Russia sign the Start II treaty calling for bilateral reduction of strategic nuclear weapons
Police begin investigations of child abuse by Michael Jackson
Sleepless in Seattle
In the Line of Fire
The Pelican Brief
Robin Hood: Men in Tights
Janet Jackson with That's The Way Love Goes
Snoop Doggy Dogg
Rage Against the Machine
Rod Stewart with Have I told You Lately
Mariah Carey with Dream Lover
Whitney Houston with I Will Always Love You
Alice in Chains
Australia Prime Minister Paul Keating
Brazil President Itamar Franco
Canada Prime Minister Brian Mulroney till September 17,
Canada Prime Minister Kim Campbell from September 17,
Canada Prime Minister Kim Campbell till November 4,
Canada Prime Minister Jean Chrétien from November 4,
China Chairman of the People's Republic of China Jiang Zemin
France President François Mitterrand
Germany Chancellor Helmut Kohl
India Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao
Italy Prime Minister Giuliano Amato Till 28 April
Italy Prime Minister Carlo Azeglio Ciampi From 28 April
Japan Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa Till 9 August
Japan Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa From 9 August
Mexico President Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Russia / Soviet Union General Secretary of the CPSU Boris Yeltsin
South Africa State President Frederik Willem de Klerk
United States President George H. W. Bush Till January 20,
United States President Bill Clinton From January 20, 1993
United Kingdom Prime Minister John Major