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What Events Happened in 1939Poland
- Nazi Germany attacks Poland on September 1st , and France, Australia and the United Kingdom declare war on Germany. This is the start of World War II
1. At the end of World War I the Treaty of Versailles was signed to end the state of war between Germany and the Allied forces in 1919.
2. The Treaty of Versailles made Germany pay reparations to certain countries, give up land and the country was forced to disarm.
3. In 1929, the Great Depression hit the world economies, making life in Europe even more difficult as much of the continent was still recovering from the first World War.
4. Nazism rose in popularity in Germany along with other extreme political beliefs around the continent.
5. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and quickly took over the government and became a dictator.
6. In the name of German superiority and creating the Third Reich Hitler began a rearmament campaign in the country.
7. The Nazi government began to prepare for rearmament under the guise of of economic development at first but then became more bold.
8. In 1935, Hitler reformed the "Luftwaffe" German air force in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
9. Leading up to the Second World War, much of Europe, especially Great Britain, subscribed to the policy of appeasement when it came to Germany's expansion, hoping that it would prevent further conflict and all out war.
10. Great Britain's Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was particularly associated with the policy of appeasement and had continually made concessions to the ever expanding Germany and had asserted that there would be peace in Europe.
11. In 1938, Hitler sent troops into Austria and annexed it with little to no opposition from the rest of the world.
12. Later in 1938, Hitler started to make claims on parts of Czechoslovakia and was further appeased when the Munich Agreement was signed in September. This allowed Germany to claim parts of Czechoslovakia with permission from France and the United Kingdom.
13. In early 1939, Hitler began building up the German navy and decided to take over the remaining parts of Czechoslovakia.
14. Germany then signed the Pact of Steel with Italy, guaranteeing their alignment in all matters of war in 1939, shortly after Italy had invaded and taken over Albania.
15. France and the United Kingdom agreed to support Poland and in August of 1939, German troops began to gather on the Polish border. By September 1st, Germany launched an invasion of Poland.
16. On September 3rd, 1939 France, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada declared war on Germany.
17. During the build-up to the Second World War, the United States maintained neutrality with several formal Neutrality Acts. However, there were "cash and carry" policies that were put into place that allowed the US to sell arms and war materials to the United Kingdom and France. The United States remained neutral until 1941 when German ships began to attack US ships and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
- Russia Invades Finland
1. Russia tries to negotiate a land deal with Finland in October of 1939 but both of the offers and counter-offers are rejected on both sides.
2. Russian troops invade Finland on November 30th, 1939 and the USSR begins to bomb Helsinki.
3. The purpose of the conflict was that the Soviet Union wanted to exchange certain lands with Finland so that the Russian city of Leningrad would be better protected as the Second World War began.
4. Although the Red Army outnumbered the Finnish defenses, it lacked leadership and organization. Lack of organization on the Soviet side coupled with a high morale among the Finnish side left a slightly different outcome then what was expected during the "Winter War".
5. Finnish troops were much better prepared for the harsh winter conditions and therefore had a decent advantage over the Soviets initially, many of whom stood out against the snow in their dark green uniforms.
6. After making slow progress and losing many more men than expected, the Red Army reorganized and would launch a huge offensive attack in February of 1940.
7. The Soviet Union eventually gained the upper hand and the Moscow Peace Treaty was signed between the two nations on March 12, 1940. The USSR ended up getting more land than had been originally requested.
8. While this was technically a win for the Soviet Union, it had really been somewhat of a political embarrassment and loss.
9. The Soviet Union had lost over 125,000 men compared to the 25,000 Finland had lost. There were nearly 200,000 injuries on the Soviet side compared to about 43,000 injures on the Finnish side.
10. These results made the Western allies lose confidence in the USSR's military and it gave Nazi Germany confidence against its enemies as the Second World War began.
- Lou Gehrig retires from Major League Baseball after being diagnosed with ALS.
1. Henry Louis Gehrig (Lou Gehrig) was born in New York City in 1903.
2. He went to Columbia University from 1921 to 1923 but did not graduate. He played several sports while there including baseball.
3. Gehrig was signed by the New York Yankees in 1923 but didn't garner much attention until 1926. He was a first baseman for the team starting in 1925.
4. He had a very good season in 1927 but was continually overshadowed by the charismatic Babe Ruth.
5. Gehrig continued to be a consistently great batter and in June of 1932 he became the first player to have ever hit four home runs in a single game.
6. Gehrig suffered from several injuries during the mid-1930s and had some issues that were likely symptoms of the disease that would end his career.
7. Throughout 1938 and 1939 his strength as a player deteriorated greatly and after playing in his 2,130th consecutive game (a record that would remain until it was broken in 1995) he voluntarily benched himself on May 2nd, 1939.
8. Gehrig went to Minnesota's Mayo Clinic in June of 1939 where he was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, "Lou Gehrig's Disease"), an incurable disease that would destroy all motor functions of the brain while leaving the mind fully intact.
9. His retirement from Major League Baseball was announced by the New York Yankees on June 21st of 1939.
10. On July 4th of that year, Gehrig was celebrated as "Lou Gehrig Appreciation Day" was declared at Yankee Stadium. Fans and fellow sportsmen honored him and it was there that he made his famous "Luckiest Man on the Face of the Earth" statement. The team also retired his number, the first time in MLB history that had been done.
11. In his final years he worked as a public servant, becoming a New York City parole commissioner. He died on June 2nd of 1941 at the age of thirty-seven.
- Dictator Francisco Franco conquers Madrid, on March 28th ending the Spanish Civil War
1. The Spanish Civil War begins in July of 1936 after a rebel coup took place against the elected Republicans by the military-supported Nationalists.
2. The Nationalists were lead by then president Manuel Azaña, Francisco Largo Caballero and Juan Negrín. Overall, the support of the people was divided somewhat evenly on both sides with certain parts of the country leaning one way or the other.
3. The Nationalists were supported by Italy and Germany, while the Republicans were supported by the USSR.
4. Initially, after the first coordinated coup, the Nationalists were able to gain control of about one-third of the country in 1936.
5. Franco was appointed head of the Nationalist Army and chief of state in late 1936. By November the Nationalist forces made it to the outside of Madrid and began a siege of the capital.
6. The country was split in half by the two opposing sides and in 1937, the Nationalists gained control of many of the Northern provinces. They kept pushing North, forcing much of the Republican army to flee into France by the end of 1938.
7. In early 1939, the Republican government also went into exile in France.
8. At the end of March of 1939 the Republican armies started to surrender and on the 28th of March, the Nationalists captured Madrid.
9. General Franco announced the Nationalist victory on April 1st, 1939.
10. There were many atrocities committed during the Spanish Civil War by both sides. Executions and death squads were rampant and those who showed opposition to the cause on either side were often killed. The estimated death toll was up to 500,000 people and nearly the same amount of people fled the country.
11. Francisco Franco would remain in power until 1975.
- 71 people die across Victoria in one of Australia's worst ever bush fires
- Earthquake kills 30,000 in Chile
- "Gone with the Wind" premieres in Atlanta.
The classic film “Gone With the Wind” has its debut in Atlanta, Georgia on December 15th of 1939. The film starred Vivian Leigh and Clark Gable and the film was based on Margaret Mitchell’s 1936 novel of the same name. It was about the American South before and during the Civil War. The film won eight Academy Awards, including a win for Hattie McDaniel as the Best Supporting Actress making her the first African-American actor to be nominated for and win an Oscar. The film was directed by Victor Fleming. He was also the director of “The Wizard of Oz,” another iconic film that had also been released in 1939.
- The Wizard of Oz starring Judy Garland premieres.
On August 15th, the much-loved classic film, The Wizard of Oz, held its Hollywood premiere. The film starred a young Judy Garland whose popularity soared after its release. The fantastical adaptation of L. Frank Baum's "The Wonderful World of Oz" was released to a national audience on August 25th. The iconic movie featured songs like "We're Off to See the Wizard" and "If I Only Had a Brain," along with "Over the Rainbow" which was a popular song on the charts that year. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1939, however it lost out to Gone with the Wind. This colorful, creative and quotable film tops many greatest films lists and is still enjoyed by audiences today.
- Last public execution in France - murderer Eugene Weidmann is decapitated by the guillotine.
- FDR Receives the Einstein-Szilard Letter on October 11th
1. In December of 1938 uranium fission is discovered and physicists begin to study nuclear physics.
2. Leo Szilard, a Hungarian physicist, concludes that it could be possible to develop a nuclear bomb and deduced that Nazi Germany had been making moves to research and develop such an idea.
3. On July 2nd, 1939 Szilard met with fellow physicist Albert Einstein and the two drafted a letter to President Roosevelt informing him of the potential to build a nuclear bomb and advising him to create and fund a government department to research nuclear weapons within the United States.
4. The letter was given to Alexander Sachs to deliver to FDR, which he did on October 11th. It had been planned for it to be delivered earlier, however the outbreak of World War II in August prevented Sachs from being able to meet with FDR right away.
5. The letter resulted in the creation of the Advisory Committee on Uranium on October 21st, 1939.
6. From that committee came the eventual formation of the Manhattan Project which successfully produced the first atomic bomb in 1945, changing the world and warfare forever.
- The Worlds Fair Opens in New York
- LaGuardia Airport Opens in New York
- The independent republic of Czechoslovakia is dissolved
- Regular television broadcasts began in the United States
- America amends Neutrality Acts to allow sending military aid to countries in Europe.
After World War II began in September of 1939, the President Roosevelt pushed for another Neutrality Act that would expand the cash-and-carry policy that had been in place since 1937. The two previous Neutrality Acts had been passed in 1935 and 1937, banning the export of arms and forbidding U.S. Merchant ships from transporting arms to foreign countries that were at war. In the 1937 Neutrality Act, there was a cash-and-carry provision that allowed the countries at war to purchase items (excluding arms) from the United States as long as they transported them on non-U.S. Ships, paid in cash, and were approved by the President. In 1939, the cash-and-carry provision had expired and President Roosevelt wanted to expand it to include the sale of arms in lieu of the outbreak of war. After resistance from isolationists in Congress the Neutrality Act of 1939 was finally passed on November 3rd of 1939.
- Continuing drought conditions in the North Eastern US causing mass crop failure and hardship
- Following the Royal Commission recommending the formation of Arab and Jewish States Palestinians revolt
- Germany and Italy sign "The Pact Of Steel"
- Assassination Attempt On Hitler fails by 8 minutes
- Thailand Changes it's Name From Siam
- Pope Pius XI dies after failing health aged 81 after being the Pope for 17 years.
- Gone with the Wind
- The Wizard of Oz
- Of Mice and Men
- Wuthering Heights
- The Hunchback of Notre Dame
- Glen Miller has a series of hits including "Moonlight Serenade."
- Moon Love , Over the Rainbow with Judy Garland and Stairway to the Stars
- Address Unknown by the Inkspots
Born This YearJohn Cleese October 27th
Tina Turner November 26th
Marvin Gaye April 2nd
Francis Ford Coppola April 7th
Ginger Baker August 19th -- London, England
Francis Ford Coppola April 7th -- Detroit, Michigan, United States
James Fox May 19th -- London, England
George Hamilton August 12th -- Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Paul Hogan October 8th -- Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia
Ayatollah Khamenei July 15th -- Mashhad, Iran
Ralph Lauren October 14th -- The Bronx, New York, United States
George Lazenby September 5th -- Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia
Lee Majors April 23rd -- Wyandotte, Michigan, U.S.
Lee Harvey Oswald October 18th -- New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
Neil Sedaka March 13th -- Brooklyn, New York, United States
Jackie Stewart June 11th -- Milton, West Dunbartonshire, Scotland
Terry Waite May 31st -- Styal, Cheshire, England
- The outbreak of World War II brings television broadcasting at the BBC to an end and it restarts in 1946
- The first air conditioned car the Packhard goes on show
- Hewlitt Packard is formed
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Frequency Modulation USA by Edwin H Armstrong - sound by radio waves
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister Joseph Lyons Till 7 April
Australia Prime Minister Sir Earle Page From 7 April
Australia Prime Minister Sir Earle Page Till 26 April
Australia Prime Minister Robert Menzies From 26 April
Brazil President Getúlio Vargas Canada Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King
Germany Chancellor Adolf Hitler
Italy Prime Minister Benito Mussolini
Japan Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe Till 5 January
Japan Prime Minister Kiichiro Hiranuma From 5 January
Japan Prime Minister Kiichiro Hiranuma Till 30 August
Japan Prime Minister Nobuyuki Abe From 30 August
Mexico President Lázaro Cárdenas Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister James Barry Munnik Hertzog Till 5 September
South Africa Prime Minister Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts From 5 September
United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt United Kingdom Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain