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What Events Happened in 1934
- 1934 was arguably one of the worst years of the Great Depression as the world's economy hit rock bottom. As the situation seemed hopeless, more and more people turned to whoever promised them a better life. At this time in history, the rising leaders used peoples' fears and prejudices to rally support and create a scapegoat for the world's problems.
1. A result of this was that many nations around the world fell into extremist political views with Fascism, Nazism, and extreme Communism dominating the political landscape, often to a detrimental effect.
2. Many dictators surfaced around the world, especially in parts of Europe, South America and Asia.
3. The Soviet Union and Stalin
a. In the Soviet Union, Josef Stalin had come to power in the previous decade.
b. He solidified his control of the country in 1934 as he began the "Great Purge".
c. This was a period of time during which he gained absolute control through heavy repression of the populace.
d. He also conducted random executions and imprisoned many Communist party and government officials, along with anyone who showed signs of political disagreement.
4. In Germany, the country turned to Nazi extremism with the election of Adolf Hitler in 1933.
a. By 1934, he had declared himself "fuhrer" and absolute leader of the country.
b. Hitler directed aggression at the Jewish population and through radical propaganda he was able to spread his ideas of strong nationalism and racial superiority to the German people.
c. Through carefully planned law-making he was able to begin a program of increasingly repressive conditions for Jewish citizens and others deemed "undesirable" that would lead to the death of millions of people during the Holocaust.
d. Hitler propelled his ideas with fear and repression to those who resisted and awarded those who fell in line, leaving a large portion of the population complicit in his crimes against humanity.
e. He would slowly continue to gain power and push bounds until he started invading parts of Europe in the late 1930s, leading to the outbreak of World War II.
5. Several countries in South and Central America fell to Communist and Fascist dictators starting in the 1930s.
a. Getulio Vargas, the dictator of Brazil, turned the country into a near Fascist police state in 1934 with a new and repressive constitution.
b. Countries that dealt with issues of war such as Bolivia also fell into military control and were lead by dictators.
6. The consequence of these regimes was a second World War, several civil wars, the Cold War, continually stagnant economies, repressive and fearful living conditions, and the deaths of millions of people worldwide.
- John Herbert Dillinger ( Public Enemy Number 1 ) bank robber dies after a shoot out on July 22nd with the FBI outside the Biograph theatre in Chicago
1. John Dillinger and Ed Singleton attempt to rob a grocer in Mooresville, Indiana but are caught. Dillinger is convicted and sentenced to up to twenty years in state prison in 1924.
2. Dillinger is released from prison on parole after serving eight and half years. After his release he robs a bank in Ohio and is arrested in September of 1933.
3. A few days after Dillinger is arrested, eight of his friends escaped from the Indiana State Prison and four of his associates broke him out of jail.
4. After breaking out of prison he and his gang of criminals robbed several banks and raided several Indiana police arsenals.
5. Dillinger and his gang continued to rob banks in the Chicago area, killing several police officers as they went. They then traveled to Florida and then Arizona.
6. He was arrested in Tucson, Arizona in January of 1934 and then jailed in Crown Point, Indiana. He broke out of that prison in March. He stole the sheriff's vehicle and drove it across state lines, an action that would force the FBI to become more involved in his case.
7. He made his way to Chicago and then to St. Paul to meet with his girlfriend and another gang of criminals with whom he robbed more banks.
8. The FBI tracked him to St. Paul but Dillinger was able to flee back to Mooresville, Indiana where he stayed with his father.
9. He then continued to travel around the Midwest, robbing with various criminal associates, including Baby Face Nelson.
10. The FBI closed in on him near Rhinelander, Wisconsin and after a stand-off, Dillinger was able to escape again.
11. After that incident, J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the FBI, assigned agent Samuel Cowley as the head of the investigation on Dillinger.
12. In July of 1934, the FBI received a tip about Dillinger's whereabouts from a madame at a Gary, Indiana brothel. This tip would lead to FBI to him on July 22nd, 1934.
13. The FBI ambushed Dillinger outside of the Biograph theater near Chicago, Illinois on July 22nd. He tried to run and shoot at the agents but was shot three times and killed.
- Near their hide-out in Black Lake, Louisiana, FBI men ambush bank robbers on May 23rd Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow and fire, killing them.
1. Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow meet in 1930.
2. Bureau of Investigation becomes interested in the duo in 1932 after they are traced to an abandoned stolen car in Michigan.
3. In 1933, a warrant for their arrest was issued by the US Commissioner in Dallas, Texas. They were wanted for transporting a stolen car from Dallas to Oklahoma.
4. Law enforcement attempted to trap them near Grand Prairie. TX in November of 1933 but they escaped.
5. Throughout 1932 and 1933 they traveled around committing robberies, thefts and murders, at first with three other companions who were later captured or killed by police.
6. In January of 1934, Clyde Barrow, with the help of Bonnie Parker, freed prisoners at the Eastham State Prison Farm by attacking the guards.
7. FBI Agents gathered evidence against them and followed their trail throughout several states, especially Louisiana.
8. Police from Texas and Louisiana track them down in May of 1934 and ambush them near Sailes, Louisiana on May 23rd, 1934 opening fire on them. They were killed right away.
- Inner City Slum Clearance begin in New York and other major US Cities
1. The United States enters the Great Depression in the early 1930s. Hundreds of thousands of Americans lose their homes and have no other option than to live in slums with substandard living conditions.
2. In 1933, the newly elected Franklin D. Roosevelt pledges to bring about the recovery through government intervention (The New Deal), including the development of public housing.
3. The National Public Housing Conference decides to promote slum clearance and the construction of new permanent housing in 1933, that same year the US Congress passes the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) in June.
4. NIRA allowed the creation of the Public Works Administration (PWA). Much of the work done to promote slum clearance and the creation of public housing was done by Senator Robert F. Wagner from the state of New York.
5. The National Housing Act of 1934 created the United States Housing Authority to help fulfill the goals of the PWA.
6. The PWA was primarily interested in slum clearance first and then the creation of public housing, however, legal hurdles eventually got in the way of that goal. With the federal district court case of United States v. Certain Lands in the City of Louisville, it was ruled that the US government did not have the power to condemn and destroy properties in any state in 1935, and from that point on the PWA worked with state housing authorities to accomplish their goals legally.
7. By 1937, there was a more serious push for the federal government to commit to public housing and slum clearance and in November of that year the Housing Act of 1937 (Wagner-Steagall Act) was passed with the goal of providing low-rent housing of a better quality to the poor in Urban areas.
8. Overall, these programs did succeed in tearing down some slums in American cities and laid a foundation for the creation of affordable public housing, however there were also several problems with these programs.
9. One of the largest problems with this was that the new public housing that was being built to replace slums was not actually meant to help those who had been living in the slums, but for the working poor and others who would have been considered middle class if not for the Great Depression. This meant that a large portion of those who were displaced did not end up in a better living situation. In fact, they would often have to move into worse living conditions that were more expensive than before.
10. Another criticism of these programs was that the creation of public housing projects would get rid of thousands of tax-paying individual property owning households and replace them with one large tax-exempt piece of public property that would prove to be a larger drain on city services.
11. Some other issues related to slum clearance were that many displaced families did not even qualify for or were not able to afford the new public housing options, land owners were not fairly compensated for their properties, and the fact the public housing would negatively impact already struggling private real estate markets.
12. Despite the abundance of negative consequences of these programs, there were some positives, too. The work of clearing slums and building new homes created work for many, as the building industry had been stagnant during the Great Depression.
13. It was also successful in improving the general living conditions of many. A good portion of the slum properties that were taken down had no inside toilets, no hot water, no bathtubs or showers, and nearly all of the dwellings had no central heat. All of these problems would be solved with the building of new houses.
14. These programs would also improve the health and safety conditions as well as modernizing large areas of US cities.
15. Overall, there were both good and bad results that came about from the US government's commitment to the clearing of slums and creation of public housing. It is important to note that deeper issues also contributed to the successes and failures of these programs including issues of race, class, and public welfare programs. There are also arguments that can be made on either side reflecting the government's responsibility to help those in need or their right to meddle in private affairs.
16. An interesting statistic taken from the book, "From the Puritans to the Projects" by Lawrence J. Vale in regards to public housing affordability during the New Deal (with a focus on the city of Boston):
a. The average monthly rent for a slum dweller before the housing projects in Boston was $15.88.
b. The average monthly rent for an apartment created by the Boston Housing Authority that replaced a slum was $23.00.
- Japan renounced the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930
On December 19th, 1934 the Japanese government announced it would no longer be honoring its agreements in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930. This meant that Japan would not adhere to warship tonnage ratios meant to keep the world’s largest navies in check and would not be taking part in any further disarmament efforts. The move was made in order for Japan to grow its navy as it entered into conflicts in the Pacific and the country began an aggressive military expansion campaign prior to World War II.
- Following the depression worldwide dictatorships are established in Brazil and Bolivia
- Oklahoma experienced a ravaging drought with temperatures reaching 117 degrees in the summer of 1934 After 2 years of near drought conditions causing further crop failure and many farms going bankrupt with more land turning from fertile soil to a dust bowl
- The USSR joins the League of nations
- Charles Lindbergh baby kidnapper "Bruno Hauptmann" arrested and charged with kidnapping and murder
1. Twenty month old Charles Lindbergh Jr., child of famous aviator Charles Lindbergh, was taken from the Lindbergh home in Hopewell, New Jersey on March 1st, 1932. A note was left demanding a $50,000 ransom.
2. Several meetings to deliver the ransom money to the kidnapper are attempted but law enforcement agents were still unable to track down the kidnapper.
3. On May 12th, 1932 the body of Lindbergh's son was found and it was discovered that he had been likely killed on the night of the kidnapping. The case was then turned into a murder investigation.
4. Investigators tracked bills given in the ransom money for two years and their investigation eventually lead them to capture and arrest Richard Hauptmann on September 19th, 1934.
5. Hauptmann went on trial in 1935 and was found guilty of the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh Jr.
6. Hauptmann was executed for his crime in April of 1936.
- Congress pass the Jones-Connally Farm-Relief Act to help Struggling Farmers
- Securities Exchange Act passed establishing Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)
- The MacRobertson Air Race begins on October 20th
The MacRobertson Air Race began on October 20th, 1934. The air race was held as a way to commemorate the centenary of Melbourne and Australia’s Victoria state. It was sponsored by MacRobertson’s Confectionary, who gave $75,000.00 towards a prize fund, only asking for the race to be as safe as possible. There were total of twenty participants that joined the race from England to Australia. The race was to be monitored by the Royal Aero Club of England and there were no rules to limit the size or power of participating aircrafts and very few rules governing the race. The planes would have to stop at five mandatory stops along the 11,300 mile route and adhere to some basic safety rules. C.W.A. Scott and T. Campbell Black won the speed portion of the air race.
- The famous "surgeon's photograph" of the Loch Ness Monster or "Nessie"
1. 565 Saint Columba The earliest report of a monster in the vicinity of Loch Ness appears in the Life of St. Columba by Adomnán, written in the seventh century AD
2. 1933 Sightings of the monster increased after a road was built along the loch bringing workers and tourists to the formerly-isolated area
3. 1933 George Spicer and his wife saw "a most extraordinary form of animal" cross the road in front of their car They described the creature as having a large body about 4 feet high and 25 feet long and a long, wavy, narrow neck, slightly thicker than an elephant's trunk and as long as the 10–12-foot width of the road
4. 1933 Hugh Gray was walking along the loch after church when he reportedly saw a large creature rising from the lake. Gray took several pictures, but only one was successfully developed. The blurry image appeared to show a creature with a long tail and thick body on the surface of the loch.
5. 1934 April 21st "surgeon's photograph" "Robert Kenneth Wilson, a London gynecologist" is published in the Daily Mail
The photo is shown below , by the 1990's using modern technology the photo was believed to be an elaborate hoax but is still considered by many as the best proof that Nessie does exist.
- The Loch Ness Monster is spotted on January 14th for the first time
- Alcatraz federal penitentiary known as "The Rock" opens
- The First Ever general strike in the US
- Italy wins the World Cup in Italy defeating Czechoslovakia
- Sir Oswald Mosley and Black-Shirt fascist followers are put on Trial following mass brawling at a political rally
- Adolf Hitler declares himself the fuhrer Of Germany after becoming President and Chancellor August 2nd
- The Sikorsky S-42 was the first real transoceanic flying boat and had it's maiden flight
- The Flying Scotsman becomes the first steam locomotive to be officially recorded at 100 mph.
- The Luxury Liner Queen Mary is launched in Scotland
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Catseyes England by Percy Shaw - for lighting roads
Trampoline George Nissen and Larry Griswold
- Donald Duck appears for the first time in "The Wise Little Hen" June 9th
- The Film Stand Up and Cheer, with five-year-old Shirley Temple in a relatively minor role. but she steals the show and a star is born ,later in the year she goes on to sing " The Good Ship Lollipop in the film Bright Eyes
- Cole Porter continues to have a string of musical hits
Born This YearBrian Epstein September 19th
Sophia Loren September 20th
Peter Arnett November 13th
Yuri Gagarin March 9th
Hank Aaron February 5th -- Mobile, Alabama U.S.
Giorgio Armani July 11th -- Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Tom Baker January 20th -- Liverpool, England
Brigitte Bardot September 28th -- Paris, France
Pat Boone June 1st -- Jacksonville, Florida, USA
Barry Humphries February 17th -- Kew, Melbourne, Australia
Roy Kinnear January 8th -- Wigan, Lancashire, England, UK
Charles Manson November 12th -- Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
Bill Moyers June 6th -- Hugo, Oklahoma, United States
Ralph Nader February 27th -- Winsted, Connecticut United States
Maggie Smith December 28th -- Ilford, Essex, England, UK
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister Joseph Lyons Brazil President Getúlio Vargas Canada Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett
Germany Chancellor Adolf Hitler
Italy Prime Minister Benito Mussolini
Japan Prime Minister Makoto Saito Till 8 July
Japan Prime MinisterKeisuke Okada From 8 July
Mexico President Abelardo L. Rodríguez Till 30 November
Mexico President Lázaro Cárdenas From 1 December
Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister James Barry Munnik Hertzog United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt United Kingdom Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald