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What Events Happened in 1934World
- 1934 was arguably one of the worst years of the Great Depression as the world's economy hit rock bottom. As the situation seemed hopeless, more and more people turned to whoever promised them a better life. At this time in history, the rising leaders used peoples' fears and prejudices to rally support and create a scapegoat for the world's problems.
1. A result of this was that many nations around the world fell into extremist political views with Fascism, Nazism, and extreme Communism dominating the political landscape, often to a detrimental effect.
2. Many dictators surfaced around the world, especially in parts of Europe, South America and Asia.
3. The Soviet Union and Stalin
a. In the Soviet Union, Josef Stalin had come to power in the previous decade.
b. He solidified his control of the country in 1934 as he began the "Great Purge".
c. This was a period of time during which he gained absolute control through heavy repression of the populace.
d. He also conducted random executions and imprisoned many Communist party and government officials, along with anyone who showed signs of political disagreement.
4. In Germany, the country turned to Nazi extremism with the election of Adolf Hitler in 1933.
a. By 1934, he had declared himself "fuhrer" and absolute leader of the country.
b. Hitler directed aggression at the Jewish population and through radical propaganda he was able to spread his ideas of strong nationalism and racial superiority to the German people.
c. Through carefully planned law-making he was able to begin a program of increasingly repressive conditions for Jewish citizens and others deemed "undesirable" that would lead to the death of millions of people during the Holocaust.
d. Hitler propelled his ideas with fear and repression to those who resisted and awarded those who fell in line, leaving a large portion of the population complicit in his crimes against humanity.
e. He would slowly continue to gain power and push bounds until he started invading parts of Europe in the late 1930s, leading to the outbreak of World War II.
5. Several countries in South and Central America fell to Communist and Fascist dictators starting in the 1930s.
a. Getulio Vargas, the dictator of Brazil, turned the country into a near Fascist police state in 1934 with a new and repressive constitution.
b. Countries that dealt with issues of war such as Bolivia also fell into military control and were lead by dictators.
6. The consequence of these regimes was a second World War, several civil wars, the Cold War, continually stagnant economies, repressive and fearful living conditions, and the deaths of millions of people worldwide.
- John Herbert Dillinger ( Public Enemy Number 1 ) bank robber dies after a shoot out on July 22nd with the FBI outside the Biograph theatre in Chicago
1. John Dillinger and Ed Singleton attempt to rob a grocer in Mooresville, Indiana but are caught. Dillinger is convicted and sentenced to up to twenty years in state prison in 1924.
2. Dillinger is released from prison on parole after serving eight and half years. After his release he robs a bank in Ohio and is arrested in September of 1933.
3. A few days after Dillinger is arrested, eight of his friends escaped from the Indiana State Prison and four of his associates broke him out of jail.
4. After breaking out of prison he and his gang of criminals robbed several banks and raided several Indiana police arsenals.
5. Dillinger and his gang continued to rob banks in the Chicago area, killing several police officers as they went. They then traveled to Florida and then Arizona.
6. He was arrested in Tucson, Arizona in January of 1934 and then jailed in Crown Point, Indiana. He broke out of that prison in March. He stole the sheriff's vehicle and drove it across state lines, an action that would force the FBI to become more involved in his case.
7. He made his way to Chicago and then to St. Paul to meet with his girlfriend and another gang of criminals with whom he robbed more banks.
8. The FBI tracked him to St. Paul but Dillinger was able to flee back to Mooresville, Indiana where he stayed with his father.
9. He then continued to travel around the Midwest, robbing with various criminal associates, including Baby Face Nelson.
10. The FBI closed in on him near Rhinelander, Wisconsin and after a stand-off, Dillinger was able to escape again.
11. After that incident, J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the FBI, assigned agent Samuel Cowley as the head of the investigation on Dillinger.
12. In July of 1934, the FBI received a tip about Dillinger's whereabouts from a madame at a Gary, Indiana brothel. This tip would lead to FBI to him on July 22nd, 1934.
13. The FBI ambushed Dillinger outside of the Biograph theater near Chicago, Illinois on July 22nd. He tried to run and shoot at the agents but was shot three times and killed.
- Near their hide-out in Black Lake, Louisiana, FBI men ambush bank robbers on May 23rd Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow and fire, killing them.
- Following the depression worldwide dictatorships are established in Brazil and Bolivia
- Oklahoma experienced a ravaging drought with temperatures reaching 117 degrees in the summer of 1934 After 2 years of near drought conditions causing further crop failure and many farms going bankrupt with more land turning from fertile soil to a dust bowl
- The USSR joins the League of nations
- Charles Lindbergh baby kidnapper "Bruno Hauptmann" arrested and charged with kidnapping and murder
- Congress pass the Jones-Connally Farm-Relief Act to help Struggling Farmers
- Securities Exchange Act passed establishing Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)
- Inner City Slum Clearance begin in New York and other major US Cities
- The Loch Ness Monster is spotted on January 14th for the first time
- Alcatraz federal penitentiary known as "The Rock" opens
- The First Ever general strike in the US
- Italy wins the World Cup in Italy defeating Czechoslovakia
- Sir Oswald Mosley and Black-Shirt fascist followers are put on Trial following mass brawling at a political rally
- Adolf Hitler declares himself the fuhrer Of Germany after becoming President and Chancellor August 2nd
- The Sikorsky S-42 was the first real transoceanic flying boat and had it's maiden flight
- The Flying Scotsman becomes the first steam locomotive to be officially recorded at 100 mph.
- The Luxury Liner Queen Mary is launched in Scotland
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Catseyes England by Percy Shaw - for lighting roads
Trampoline George Nissen and Larry Griswold
- Donald Duck appears for the first time in "The Wise Little Hen" June 9th
- The Film Stand Up and Cheer, with five-year-old Shirley Temple in a relatively minor role. but she steals the show and a star is born ,later in the year she goes on to sing " The Good Ship Lollipop in the film Bright Eyes
- Cole Porter continues to have a string of musical hits
Born This YearBrian Epstein September 19th
Sophia Loren September 20th
Peter Arnett November 13th
Yuri Gagarin March 9th
Hank Aaron February 5th -- Mobile, Alabama U.S.
Giorgio Armani July 11th -- Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Tom Baker January 20th -- Liverpool, England
Brigitte Bardot September 28th -- Paris, France
Pat Boone June 1st -- Jacksonville, Florida, USA
Barry Humphries February 17th -- Kew, Melbourne, Australia
Roy Kinnear January 8th -- Wigan, Lancashire, England, UK
Charles Manson November 12th -- Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
Bill Moyers June 6th -- Hugo, Oklahoma, United States
Ralph Nader February 27th -- Winsted, Connecticut United States
Maggie Smith December 28th -- Ilford, Essex, England, UK
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister Joseph Lyons Brazil President Getúlio Vargas Canada Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett
Germany Chancellor Adolf Hitler
Italy Prime Minister Benito Mussolini
Japan Prime Minister Makoto Saito Till 8 July
Japan Prime MinisterKeisuke Okada From 8 July
Mexico President Abelardo L. Rodríguez Till 30 November
Mexico President Lázaro Cárdenas From 1 December
Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister James Barry Munnik Hertzog United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt United Kingdom Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald