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What Events Happened in 1947U.S.
- CIA established in 1947
- The International Monetary Fund IMF begins to operate.
1. The IMF was conceived following the breakdown of world trade and currencies during the Great Depression
2. To oversee the international monetary system of exchange rates and international payments
3. IMF was conceived in July 1944, when representatives of 45 countries meet in the town of Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States,
4. IMF came into formal existence in December 1945, when its first 29 member countries signed its Articles of Agreement
5. Originally 29 countries signed including Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, China, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Iran,
6. Current members of the IMF are the 187 members of the UN and Kosovo
7. Headquarters is in Washington, D.C.
8. Voting Weight of member countries is done by a quota system the higher subscription the bigger the voting weight and its access to IMF financing. The United States has by far the largest Quota due to it's subscription giving it 16.77% of the voting rights
9. Major decisions require an 85 percent super majority therefore the US has an absolute veto.
This is an important organization and is playing a significant role in Europe currently where Greece, Ireland and Portugal, The IMF does loan money but most often with strict requirements including cutting public spending etc.
- New Zealand ratifies the 1931 Statute of Westminster which provides Effective Legislative Independence from Great Britain
- UFO allegedly found on July 7th in the Roswell UFO incident
1. Unknown object crashed in the general vicinity of Roswell, New Mexico,
2. The United States Armed Forces insists it was a high-altitude surveillance balloon
3. On July 8th Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) public information officer Walter Haut in Roswell, New Mexico, issued a press release stating that personnel from the field's 509th Bomb Group had recovered a crashed "flying disk" from a ranch near Roswell,
4. The story all but died following the Press Release for 30 years
5. In 1978, UFO expert Stanton T. Friedman interviewed Major Jesse Marcel who was involved with the original recovery of the debris in 1947
6. Marcel expressed his belief that the military had covered up the recovery of an alien spacecraft including Alien Lifeforms
This created the urban myth, legend or cover up for what we now call the Roswell UFO incident which possibly means Aliens, Space Ships and much more are hidden by the US Military, If the reports are true or false I don't know, I leave it to others to make their own decision
India and Pakistan
- India and Pakistan gain independence from Great Britain.
India and Pakistan become independent nations on August 15th of 1947 after the Indian Independence Bill goes into effect. The countries had previously been under British rule for over two hundred years. The independence movement in India began at the turn of the century and was largely influenced by Mohandas Gandhi and his efforts and non-violent resistance. Gandhi heralded the move by Britain as one of the “noblest acts” they have ever committed. While independence was celebrated throughout India and Pakistan, the two new countries also experienced sharp divisions between Hindus and Muslims and many episodes of violence within the more divided regions occurred, creating conflicts that still exist in those parts today.
- Thor Heyerdahl's balsa wood raft the Kon-Tiki, smashes into the reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands
1. Thor Heyerdahl believed that people from South America could have settled Polynesia in pre-Columbian times
2. The Kon-Tiki expedition was designed to prove that using materials and knowledge only available pre late 1400's the ocean voyage was possible
3. The Kon-Tiki was constructed out of balsa logs
4. The main sail was 15 ft by 18 ft on a yard of bamboo stems lashed together
5. Kon-Tiki was named after the Inca sun god, Viracocha, for whom "Kon-Tiki" was said to be an old name
5. The Kon-Tiki had six men on its crew including Thor Heyerdahl
6. Kon-Tiki lands on an uninhabited islet off Raroia Island in the Tuamotu group of Islands on August 7th after a 101 day, 4,300 mile journey across the Pacific Ocean proving that pre-historic peoples could have traveled from South America
Thor Heyerdahl's book about his experience became a bestseller. It was published in 1948 as The Kon-Tiki Expedition, many anthropologists dispute the claim, but regardless this was still a remarkable experiment and worthy of mention
- A research team at Bell Laboratories invents the transistor
1. A research team including William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain is assembled in 1945 by Bell Laboratories to create a solid-state semi-conductor switch to replace vacuum tubes in electronics..
2. John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invent the very first point-contact transistor in 1947.
3. William Shockley invents the junction transistor to improve upon the original design in early 1948.
4. Bell unveils the invention in June of 1948.
5. The first commercial product to be sold that used transistors was the Sonotone hearing aid that was put on the market in 1952. It sold for about $230 and soon many competitors were coming up with cheaper and improved options.
6. In October of 1954, Texas Instruments introduced the first transistor radios to the market. The Regency TR1 opened the door for more improved and portable technology to be developed.
7. The transistor became a much faster, smaller, and more efficient way to run electronic devices and allowed all different types of new technologies to develop. Nearly all modern electronic devices, including computers, would not exist in the way that they do now without the transistor, making it arguably one of the most important inventions of the 20th century.
** For a much more detailed and well done timeline check out www.pbs.org/transistor where they have a highly informative timeline of the events and science surrounding the invention of the transistor.**
- National Security Act of 1947 is created.
The National Security Act of 1947 was created during July of 1947 when president Harry S. Truman signed it into law. The act facilitated a major restructuring of the United States military with the creation of the Department of Defense in the wake of World War II. As part of the act the National Security Council (NSC) was created and served as a helpful tool for Truman and future presidents to coordinate and consult on foreign policy issues during the Cold War. Additionally, it created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), a civilian-based intelligence-collecting institution that is also used to completed secretive operations within foreign nations. The act became effective in September of that year and has remained a part of U.S. policy since.
- Ferrari begins production of Italian sports cars after having been involved in motor racing since 1929
- The start of the Cold War which endured over four decades, from circa 1947 until the decline and eventual collapse of East European and Soviet state communism in the late 1980s.
1947 1. 1945 to 1947 Following the End of World War The Soviet Union begins creating the Eastern Bloc which mostly included countries it had successfully taken back from Nazi Germany Control. "satellite states of the Soviet Union"
2. Following the end of World War II the allies divide a defeated Germany into occupation zones The Soviet Union controls Eastern Berlin and Thuringia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
3. Part of The Truman Doctrine The US Gives $400 million in aid to Greek and Turkish governments to help fight the growth in communism
4. The United States Government becomes committed to stop communism from infiltrating the United States through Trade Unions, Media and other influential organizations.
5. House Committee on Un-American Activities holds nine days of hearings into alleged communist propaganda and influence in the Hollywood motion picture industry
6. President Harry S. Truman issues Executive Order 9835 on March 21st establishing a sweeping loyalty investigation of federal employees
This is just a brief idea of how and when the Cold War Begins, the full extent includes so many other areas including Berlin Blockade ( 1948 - 1949 ), Korean War ( 1950 - 1953 ) Berlin Wall ( 1961 ), US Marshall Plan, Arms Race, Space Race, Communist attempt for Influence on Other Countries ( 1947 to 1980's )
- Ammonium nitrate cargo of SS Grandcap explodes in Texas City, Texas - 552 dead, 3000 injured
- The United Nations votes in favor of the creation of an Independent Jewish State of Israel.
1. 1923 British rule of Palestine begins
2. 1923 Jews and Arabs lived together in Palestine
3. 1929 Following the anti-Semitism in Poland and Hungary ( 1923 - 1929 )more than 75,000 additional Jews emigrate to Palestine.
4. 1936 to 1939 As the number of Jewish settlers increase a large-scale Arab Revolt against Jewish Settlers occurs in Palestine
5. 1939 As the Nazi regime increases it's influence ( 1929 to 1939 ) in some European Countries an additional 250,000 Jews arrived in Palestine
6. 1939 and 1945 ( World War II ) during The Holocaust 6 million Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe are murdered in concentration camps and elsewhere.
7. After World War II ends 100's of thousands of Jews become displaced persons (refugees) with no homeland
8. 1945 to 1947 to win independence, underground Jewish militias waged a bitter guerilla war against the British including bombing attacks against British Military Headquarters
9. 1947 November 29th The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine recommended the partition of Palestine into two separate states, one Arab and one Jewish
10. The city of Jerusalem would be under the direct administration of the United Nations
11. 1948 The State of Israel declares independence on May 14th
The independent state of Israel has had and is still an considered an outcast in the area due to multiple borders with Arab countries, over the last 60 years a number of wars have been fought from the First Arab-Israeli War (1948-49) to today where guerilla / terrorist Arab organizations attack Jewish settlements and Israel responds using extreme military force, US Presidents and world leaders have all attempted to hold pace talks but while some Arab states including Palestine still do not recognize the state of Israel and Israel continues to use it's military superiority to build additional settlements it is difficult to see a negotiated settlement holding long term ( This Webmasters Personal View of the conflict )
- Everglades National Park is dedicated as a National Park by President Harry S. Truman
- The classic holiday film "Miracle on 34th Street" premieres.
The popular holiday-themed film “Miracle on 34th Street” premieres in the United States during May of 1947. The classic film featured Maureen O’Hara, John Payne, Edmund Gwenn, and Natalie Wood in the starring roles. The film told the story of a man, “Kris Kringle,” and his determination to prove to a cynical mother and her daughter that he was the real Santa Claus while working as a Macy’s department store Santa. The film was nominated for four Academy Awards and won three, including Best Writing for Original Story and Screenplay, and Best Supporting Actor for Edmund Gwenn.
- A major strike closes The Paris subway
- 50 separate Forest fires in Maine and surrounding states destroy more than a two hundred thousand acres
- Hurricane in southeast Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama - 51 killed
- Earthquake in Chilean Andes - 233 dead
- Severe Snow Storm Northeastern part of the United States
- Severe Tornado strikes Woodward, Oklahoma killing 107
- Polaroid Land Camera Demonstrated giving photos in 60 seconds
- Howard Hughes Flying Boat ( The Spruce Goose ) takes off but will never go into production.
Howard Hughes, movie producer and aviation magnate, conducted the first and only flight of the experimental H-4 Hercules wooden flying boat during November of 1947. Nicknamed the “Spruce Goose,” the plane was the largest ever built with a 320 foot wingspan at a cost of over $23 million. Hughes successfully piloted the craft 70 feet in the air above water for about one mile at 80 miles per hour before landing in Long Beach Harbor. It was created to carry up to 750 military troops or two Sherman tanks but was never produced due to frame stability concerns.
- First Of The Dead Sea Scrolls Found in caves near Wadi Qumran
- Following the creation of National Coal Board in 1946 Great Britain nationalises Coal mines
- The four largest British rail companies Great Western Railway (GWR), the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS), the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) and the Southern Railway (SR) are taken over by the government and turned into the Nationalised British Railway.
- Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth marries the Duke of Edinburgh at Westminster Abbey, London.
- The coldest temp in North America ( −63 °C )is recorded at Snag, Yukon, Canada
- On January 1st The Canadian Citizenship Act passed in 1946 comes into effect, converting British subjects into Canadian citizens.
- The first Edinburgh International Festival and Edinburgh Fringe festival opens for the performing arts.
- Jackie Robinson took to the field for the Brooklyn Dodgers becoming the first African-American to play in Major League Baseball.
Jackie Robinson breaks the Major League Baseball color barrier when he is chosen to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 9th of 1947. Robinson was a pioneering figure in racial integration and civil rights when he became the first African-American player to play in the Major League since Moses Fleetwood in 1884. Robinson played his first game with the team on April 15th, 1947. Robinson won the Rookie of the Year award in his first season and went on to be a legendary ballplayer. Although Robinson faced harsh discrimination, racism, and abuse from fans and other players, he made a point to remain calm and did not respond to any of the attacks until 1949 when he became an outspoken proponent of integration and equal civil rights.
- First "instant camera" Camera History shown
- Saab produces its first automobile.
- Goodrich Manufacturers first Tubeless Tyre
- Howard Hughes Flying Boat ( The Spruce Goose ) takes off but will never go into production
- The Transistor is invented
- Walter Morrison invents the Frisbee.
- ENIAC, one of the world's first digital computers, is turned on after a memory upgrade. It will remain in continuous operation until October 2, 1955.
- The Sound Barrier Broken ( Traveling faster than Sound )
- First LP's History of HiFi and Music Players and Media produced ( US )
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use ) 1947
Artificial Intelligence England by Alan Turing
Mobile Phone USA
Transistor USA from Bell Laboratories
Hologram Hungary by Denis Gabor
- Miracle on 34th Street
- Road to Rio
- The Jolson Story
- Popular Books
- The Diary of Anne Frank is published
- Popular TV
- The Television Programme Muffin the Mule (UK)
Born This YearStephen King September 21st
Bob Wier ( Grateful Dead ) October 16th
Hillary Rodham Clinton October 26th
Richard Dreyfuss October 29th
Peter Noone November 5th
Johnny Rivers November 7th
Minnie Riperton November 8th
David Bowie January 8th -- Brixton, London, England
Judge Joe Brown July 5th -- Washington, D.C., U.S.
Tom Clancy April 12th -- Baltimore County, Maryland, United States
James Dyson May 2nd -- Cromer, Norfolk, England,
Farrah Fawcett February 2nd -- Corpus Christi, Texas, U.S.
Steve Forbes July 18th -- Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.
Elton John March 25th -- Pinner, Middlesex, England
David Letterman April 12th -- Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
Meat Loaf September 27th -- Dallas, Texas, U.S.
Arnold Schwarzenegger July 30th -- Thal, Styria, Austria
O. J. Simpson July 9th -- San Francisco, California, U.S.
Danielle Steel August 14th -- New York City, New York, U.S.
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister Ben Chifley Brazil President Gaspar Dutra Canada Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King
France Prime Minister Vincent Auriol From 16 January
India Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru From 15 August
Italy Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi
Japan Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida Till 24 May
Japan Prime Minister Tetsu Katayama From 24 May
Mexico President Miguel Alemán Valdés Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts United States President Harry S. Truman United Kingdom Prime Minister Clement Attlee