What Happened in 1944 Important News and Events, Key Technology and Popular Culture
What happened in 1944 Major News Stories include Siege of Leningrad ends after 872 days, Operation Overlord, code named D-Day Allied Forces land on beaches of Normandy, Glenn Miller is reported missing, V1 and V2 rockets bomb London, Battle of the Bulge Begins, GI Bill of Rights passed,
1944 On June 6th the D-DAY invasion ( Operation Overlord ) starts with allied forces crossing the English Channel to land in Normandy which signaled the end of the war in Europe. Meanwhile London had the first attacks from V2 rockets , which caused further devastation to an already badly bombed city. Glenn Miller is reported missing following a plane crash and people throughout the US and UK are encouraged to grow any vegetables they can in gardens to help ease the food shortages.
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- News and Events
-- Born This Year
-- Cost Of Living
How Much things cost
Average Cost of new house $3,450.00
Average wages per year $2,400.00
Cost of a gallon of Gas 15 cents
Average Cost for house rent $50.00 per month
Loaf of Bread 10 cents
Old Spice Shaving Soap $1.00
Examples of a couple of Houses for sale
Valparaiso -- Indiana -- Farm 16 acres with 5 room home barn and 3 poultry houses $5,000
Lima -- Ohio --- Darling bungalow 2 bedrooms wood burning stove built in cupboards and attached garage $4,000
- Operation Overlord, code named D-Day, commences with the landing of 155,000 Allied troops on the beaches of Normandy in France.
More Information and Timeline for the Liberation of France
- Paris is liberated from Nazi occupation August 25
1. France falls under German control in 1940 at the beginning of the war.
2. The efforts to free France from Nazi occupation begin in June with the D-Day invasion of Normandy when Allied troops land on the beaches and start to make their way towards Paris.
3. More Allied troops land in southern France on August 15th, and make their way towards the Rhine river.
4. As the Allies make their push towards Paris, French resistance fighters begin an uprising in Paris.
5. By August 25th, the Allies and Free French forces enter Paris and by the end of the month the French government is handed over to the Free French troops.
6. Before the end of the year France is liberated from Nazi control and occupation.
More Information and Timeline for Operation Market Garden
- Allied troops attempt the largest airborne military operation with Operation Market Garden.
Allied troops attempt the largest airborne military operation in history (at the time) when the Battle of Arnhem (Operation Market Garden) begins on September 17th, . The purpose of this operation was for Allied paratroopers to land in the Netherlands and take control of key bridges near the Rhine river from German forces. This was so that Allied troops could push through Germany and end the war much more quickly if successful.
Unfortunately, for the Allies, German troops were aware of their arrival ahead of time and had the time to organize against them and destroy many of the bridges prior to the paratroopers' landing. Some Allied forces made it to the Arnhem bridge but they were short on supplies and forced to abandon their plans, leaving Germany in control of the Rhine river at that time.
This mission was a fairly large failure for the Allies and many troops were killed and taken prisoner by the German troops.
- The US Bombs Tokyo for the first time with B-29 Super fortress bombers
- The GI Bill of Rights is passed and signed into law by Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 22nd
Siege of Leningrad Broken
1. The Siege of Leningrad (St. Petersburg) ends on January 27 News Events
2. The siege began on September 8th
of 1941 when the city was surrounded by German and Finnish troops.
3. The city was blockaded and roads and trains were cut off. Leningrad was defended by about 200,000 Soviet troops.
4. Nazi Germany targeted Leningrad for its symbolic significance as the home of the Russian Revolution as well as its strategic significance as a manufacturing hub for the Soviet Union.
5. Over one million people died, primarily from starvation, and it turned into one of the longest and most devastating sieges in history.
6. It was finally broken after 872 days.
More Information for the World War II Battle of Leyte Gulf
- The Battle of Leyte Gulf takes place during October in the Philippines
The Battle of Leyte Gulf takes place during the month of October . The main battle took place between October 23rd and 26th and was considered one of the largest naval battles in world history. United States, Australian, and Filipino forces began the invasion of Japanese occupied Philippines by landing in the Leyte Gulf. The Japanese suffered heavy losses to their navy and it marked their first kamikaze aerial attacks. The Allies won the battle and their victory lead to the liberation of the Philippines. This was a turning point in the war against Japan as it effectively cut off their supply route in Southeast Asia and was a devastating loss to their naval forces with many of their ships destroyed and thousands killed.
More Information for Gandhi.
- Mahatma Gandhi is released from jail.
Indian Independence activist and leader Mahatma Gandhi was released from jail in May . Gandhi had been arrested in August of 1942 after encouraging civil unrest and uprisings against the British at the height of World War II. Not long after his release, a failed assassination attempt was made on his life. Gandhi would live to see India achieve independence in August of 1947 but was soon killed after a successful assassination less than a year later in January of 1948 at the age of 78.
- Germany Launches the V1 rockets / Doodlebugs against London
- London is hit by a V2 rocket for the first time.
- 32 British Lancaster bombers sink the mighty German battleship Tirpitz.
More Information and Timeline for the Battle of the Bulge
- The Battle of the Bulge beginning on December 16th h is one of the deadliest battles in World War II with 19,000 US soldiers killed.
In December , the Germans attempted to surprise the Allied armies as they traveled through the Ardennes. The German objective was to split the Allies up in a surprise attack. The battle began on December 16th and continued until late January of 1945. As the Allies regrouped to fight back against the German attack, the line of defense took on the shape of a bulge, hence the name "Battle of the Bulge." The Allies were caught off guard in the attack and tens of thousands of soldiers were lost in fierce fighting (estimated up to 100,000 casualties) during what was considered the bloodiest battle of World War II for the United States. Despite the losses the Allies were successful in neutralizing the German offensive and preventing Germany from recapturing Antwerp. As well as massively depleting German fuel and supply reserves.
- Russia and the Polish Home Army liberate Poland from Nazi occupation
- US Forces liberate Rome and Italy
- The Allies assemble the largest force of Air Power used who bombed railways and other targets in Germany
- Assassination Attempt on Hitler Fails
More Information for the "Great Escape"
- 76 Prisoners of War escape the Stalag Luft III prison camp during World War II.
During March , 76 Allied prisoners of war escaped from the Stalag Luft III prison camp in Nazi Germany. The plot was masterminded by British Royal Air Force (RAF) pilot Roger Bushell and beginning in April, 1943 hundreds of prisoners secretly built a 300 foot tunnel under the camp and code-named it "Harry." They also dug two other tunnels that were later abandoned. Using scavenged items for tools, the tunnel turned out to be quite sophisticated and well concealed. They also created fake papers and handmade civilian clothing to aid them in leaving the country undetected. Of the 76 escapees, 73 were eventually recaptured. The three successful prisoners were Norwegian pilots Per Bergsland and Jens Muller, and Dutch pilot Bram van der Stok.
More Information for the World War II Second Battle of Guam
- The second Battle of Guam starts on July 21st
The second Battle of Guam begins on July 21st, when American troops fought Japanese troops to retake the island. Guam had been held by the United States since 1898 but it was captured by Japan on December 10th, 1941. During the battle the Japanese took heavy losses and the island was eventually secured by American forces on August 10th. After control of Guam was taken over by the United States, thousands of Japanese soldier remained, some in hiding. One soldier was found to be alive and hiding in a cave in 1972, nearly 30 years after the battle ended.
- Polish Freedom Fighters fight to liberate Warsaw from German occupation ends with 18,000 soldiers killed and 150,000 civilians murdered.
- The Siege of Leningrad is finally broken after 872 days
Iceland -- Independence
The Republic of Iceland is founded during February
. The Icelandic parliament decided to sever ties between Iceland and Denmark and proposed a referendum to determine the nation’s future. The referendum was held in May
of that year and citizens overwhelmingly voted in favor of severing ties with Denmark and established a republic. There was 98 percent turnout and over 90 percent voted in favor of both criteria. The country’s official celebration of independence came in June
when the republic was formally created and its first president, Sveinn Bjornsson, took office.
New Guinea -- Battle of Hollandia
The World War II Battle of Hollandia, also known as Operation Reckless, began on April 22nd
. Fighting between the Japanese and United States forces ended in an Allied victory when US forces made an amphibious landing in New Guinea. The operation was a huge success for the US and it resulted in the withdrawal of Japanese forces from eastern New Guinea. The battle was just one in a series of coordinated efforts by the Allies to take control of the South Pacific.
Calendar For The Year 1944
- In Britain the Education Act lifts the ban on women teachers marrying.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
More Information and Timeline for FDR's Fourth Term Election
- Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes the only U.S. president to be elected to a fourth term.
1. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected to a fourth term as the president of The United States.
2. The election took place on the 7th of November, . The incumbent president ran against his Republican rival Thomas E. Dewey.
3. Roosevelt won the election in a landslide after securing 432 electoral votes to his opponent's 99 electoral votes.
4. Despite his decisive victory, this election was the closest out of his four total presidential elections.
5. This was FDR's last term as the president of the United States as he died in office in April of 1945.
6. Soon after FDR's death, the 22nd Amendment was passed by Congress to limit presidential terms to two.
7. The amendment was finally added to the U.S. Constitution in February of 1951
- The United States Government gives back railroads to companies after labor disputes are settled
GI Bill of Rights
- President Franklin Roosevelt signs the G.I. Bill of Rights into law on June 22nd.
Earthquake New York
- A 5.9 earthquake hits Central New York
- Meat Rationing Ended in USA
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
- TheOffice of Strategic Services (OSS) is Formed later to be changed to the the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
- Earthquake in San Juan, Argentina, kills 8000-10000 people
- Sir Henry Wood, aged 75, conducts his last Promenade Concert
- 15yr old Anne Frank is captured by the Germans and sent to a concentration camp
- Glenn Miller is reported missing.
Born This Year
Tim Rice November 10th
Danny DeVito November 17th
Diana Ross March 26th
George Lucas May 14th
Roger Daltrey March 1st -- Hammersmith, London, England
Steve Fossett April 22nd -- Jackson, Tennessee, U.S.
Joe Frazier January 12th -- Beaufort, South Carolina, U.S.
Gladys Knight May 28th -- Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Joe Frazier January 12th -- Beaufort, South Carolina, U.S.
Tony Orlando April 3rd -- Hell's Kitchen, New York City, New York, U.S.
Jerry Springer February 13th -- Highgate, London, England
Barry White September 12th -- Galveston, Texas, U.S.
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Netherlands by Willem Kolff
USA by Benjamin Green
( he was trying to invent something to protect soldiers in the Second World War from Sunburn ). He then went on to create the Coppertone Company and the rest as they say is history
Major World Political Leaders
Australia -- Prime Minister -- John Curtin --
Brazil -- President -- Getúlio Vargas --
Canada -- Prime Minister -- William Lyon Mackenzie King --
Germany -- Chancellor -- Adolf Hitler --
Italy -- Prime Minister -- Marshal Pietro Badoglio -- Till 18 June
Italy -- Prime Minister -- Ivanoe Bonomi -- From 18 June
Japan -- Prime Minister -- Hideki Tojo -- Till 22 July
Japan -- Prime Minister -- Kuniaki Koiso -- From 22 July
Mexico -- President -- Manuel Ávila Camacho --
Russia / Soviet Union -- General Secretary of the Central Committee -- Joseph Stalin --
South Africa -- Prime Minister -- Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts --
United States -- President -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --
United Kingdom -- Prime Minister -- Winston Churchill --
United States Presidential Election -- Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic) Defeats Thomas E. Dewey (Republican)