What Happened in 1945 Important News and Events, Key Technology and Popular Culture
What happened in 1945 Major News Stories include USS Indianapolis is sunk by Japanese Submarine, War In Europe Ends May 7th ( V-E Day ), Adolf Hitler and his wife of one day, Eva Braun, commit suicide, Harry S. Truman becomes US President following the death of President Roosevelt, Nuclear Bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan surrender on August 14th ( V-J Day ), Germany Concentration Camps Liberated, Yalta Agreement signed, Germany is divided between Allied occupation forces, United Nations Charter creates United Nations .
1945 Following effects from Polio as a young man President Roosevelt died on April 12th . Following the defeat of Germany in early 1945 the war officially ended in Europe on May 7th ( V-E Day ). President Harry S. Truman orders the use of the new Nuclear Bombs developed by ( Robert Oppenheimer's team ) the first an atomic bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan, and after the 2nd atomic bomb nicknamed "Fat Man" over the city of Nagasaki, Japan 5 days later Japan surrendered August 14th ( V-J Day ) .
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How Much things cost
Average Cost of new house $4.600.00
Average wages per year $2,400.00
Cost of a gallon of Gas 15 cents
Average Cost for house rent $60.00 per month
Girls Dolls House $3.19
Average Cost New Car $1,020.00
Ladies Fur Coat $70.00
Men's Shirt $2.50
Portable Typewriter $68.37
- Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Fuhrerbunker
- US Troops Liberate Buchenwald, Germany Concentration Camp
- Dachau concentration camp liberated
- British troops liberate Belsen Concentration camp finding no running water and thousands of dead and rotting corpses
- A massive air raid using incendiaries completely destroys the city of Dresden
- Adolf Hitler and his wife of one day, Eva Braun, commit suicide
- Joseph Goebbels and his wife commit suicide after killing their 6 children
- William Joyce, known as "Lord Haw-Haw" is captured. He is later charged with high treason in London for his English-language wartime broadcasts on German radio. He is hanged in January of 1946.
- Germany is divided between Allied occupation forces
- The final Allied leadership conference ( the Potsdam Conference ) takes place during World War II.
More Information for the Allies Enter Berlin.
- The Soviet Union reaches Berlin as World War II nears its end.
World War II begins to near its end in April as the Allies close in on Berlin. The Soviet Army reached Berlin in the middle of April after making its way through Eastern Europe, liberating German concentration camps as it progressed towards Germany. By the end of the month it was clear that Nazi Germany would fall and the Allies would only accept an unconditional surrender. Hitler and several other high-ranking members of the Nazi leadership committed suicide moments before the Soviet Union reached their bunkers and Germany surrendered in the beginning of May. Fighting continued in the Pacific and the war with Japan did not end until September after the United States dropped the first atomic bombs on Japan.
More Information for the Potsdam Conference.
- The final Allied leadership conference takes place during World War II.
The final Allied leadership conference takes place in Germany during July . The three main leaders, Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S. President Harry Truman, met to discuss the end of World War II and how to deal with post-war reconstruction in Europe at the Potsdam conference. Germany had surrendered a few months prior and at this meeting it was decided that it would be divided into four occupied zones and that the country would be completely demilitarized. The borders between Germany, Poland and the Soviet Union were also readjusted. The leaders affirmed their commitment to ending the war with Japan in the Pacific and issued a stern threat of destruction to the still belligerent nation.
More Information for the Nuremberg Trials.
- The first German war crimes trial begins in Nuremberg.
The Nuremberg war crimes trials begin during November after the end of World War II. Charges were brought against 24 higher-ranking Nazi officials for war crimes and crimes against humanity related to World War II and the Holocaust. There were a total of 216 sessions of court over a ten month span and a tribunal made up of U.S., British, Soviet, and French representatives conducted the trials. In the end, twelve of the defendants were sentenced to death while others were sentenced to various lengths of prison or acquitted.
- The United States Tenth Army take control of Okinawa, main island of the Ryukyus, 362 miles from the Japanese home islands on June 22nd
- The USS Indianapolis is sunk by Japanese Submarine killing 883 seamen on July 29th , ( Many were killed through shark attacks while awaiting rescue )
- USS Franklin severely damaged with the loss of 700 + lives
- The United States detonates an atomic bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan August 6th
- The United States detonates an atomic bomb nicknamed "Fat Man" over the city of Nagasaki, Japan
- The United States celebrate V-J Day (Victory in Japan).
- Emperor Hirohito announces Japan's surrender on the radio.
More Information for Iwo Jima.
- United States Marines land on Iwo Jima.
the Battle of Iwo Jima finally ends after a month long struggle took place between the United States and Japan during World War II. The battle began in February when the United States began bombing Iwo Jima in preparation for an amphibious invasion of the Japanese held island. It was a hard fought battle but the United States came out the victor, securing the island as a strategic location closer to Japan where damaged B-29 bombers could safely touch down. The battle was immortalized in the memorable photograph of U.S. troops struggling to raise the American flag atop the slope of Mount Suribachi, the highest point in the island.
More Information and Timeline for the first atomic bombs.
- The first atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in an attempt to end the Second World War.
1. The United States begins research and development of an atomic bomb beginning in 1940 and the project is overseen by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer. It is called the Manhattan project.
2. By July 26th the Manhattan Project successfully tests the first atomic bomb in New Mexico.
3. The United States drops the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6th.
4. The second bomb is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan on August 9th.
5. It was estimated that the first bomb killed about 80,000 people instantly and tens of thousands of others were reported to have died from the effects of radiation in the coming weeks.
6. The second bomb was estimated to have killed another 40,000 people.
7. By August 15th the Japanese Emperor Hirohito issued Japan's unconditional surrender.
More Information and Timeline for the End of World War II.
- Emperor Hirohito announces Japan's surrender on the radio.
Japan surrenders in August ending World War II. The surrender came just a few days after the United States dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki marked the first time that nuclear weapons had been used in war. The new technology behind the bombs was new and unknown and had only been successfully tested during the previous month. The bombs had a devastating effect as they destroyed up to ninety-percent of the cities with an estimated death toll of about 150,000 people, changing the world and war forever.
More Information for FDR's Fourth Term.
- U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated for his fourth term in office in January.
U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt has his fourth inauguration in January . He was sworn in on the twentieth, marking an unprecedented and never to be repeated four presidential terms. Due to the ongoing Second World War, his inauguration for the fourth term was held at the White House instead of the Capitol and the usual festivities like the parade were canceled. FDR's inaugural address was also noted as one of the shortest to be delivered. FDR's fourth term did not last long as he died in April . In 1947
the 22nd Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution that only allowed a maximum of two terms for future presidents.
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945) dies in office; Vice President Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) takes the Oath of Office.
More Information for the Yalta Conference.
- President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin sign the Yalta Agreement.
The main leaders of the Allied forces in World War II meet at Yalta during February to discuss how to end the war. The week long meeting was held between the United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, and the British prime minister Winston Churchill. Some of the agreements made at the Yalta conference included asking for the unconditional surrender of Germany, having the Soviet Union join the fight in the Pacific to help end that part of the conflict, and how to restructure and divide the newly liberated parts of Europe. While the initial reaction to the Yalta Conference was positive, many critics pinpoint the agreements made as sources for future conflict between the US and USSR during the Cold War.
More Information for V-E Day.
- V-E Day (Victory in Europe, as Nazi Germany surrenders) commemorates the end of World War II in Europe.
During May the Soviet Union and Allied troops entered Berlin and captured the city. Nazi Germany soon signed an unconditional surrender, ending World War II in Europe. Several high-ranking Nazi leaders were captured and several others, including Hitler, committed suicide prior to the surrender. The war had lasted for six years and several million people died as a result of the conflict. People throughout the United States, United Kingdom, and formerly occupied Western Europe celebrated the victory on May 8, , and the Soviet Union declared victory one day later on May 9, .
- Nazis begin to evacuate from Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland
- Vienna is liberated by Russian Cossack Allies
- Austria like Germany was divided into 4 Zones: American, British, French and Russian
- France puts the leader of the Nazi Appointed Vichy Government Leader on Trial for treason
- Italian partisans execute Benito Mussolini
- The capital of the Philippines, Manila, is liberated by American forces
- The capital of Burma, Mandalay, is liberated by British Troops
World War II ends
- World War II ends When Japan surrenders in August ending World War II
Calendar For The Year 1945
World United Nations Charter
More of the History, Information, Original Countries and Purpose of the United Nations
- 50 nations sign the United Nations Charter creating the United Nations
1. United Nations was established to replace the League of Nations which failed to prevent World War II
2. On 24th October
the five permanent members of the Security Council ratified the Charter of the United Nations
3. 5 permanent member Countries were France, Republic of China, Soviet Union, United Kingdom and the United States
4. The General Assembly is the main deliberative assembly of the United Nations. Composed of all United Nations member states
5. The Security Council is made up of 15 member states, consisting of 5 permanent members-China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States-and 10 non-permanent members
6. There are currently 192 member states (2011
) including every sovereign state in the world but the Vatican City.
7. Current Secretary-General of the United Nations is Ban Ki-moon, South Korea
8. The UN and its agencies are immune to the laws of the countries where they operate, safeguarding UN's impartiality with regard to the host and member countries
9. Some of the best known Specialized agencies of the United Nations that you will often see in the news
( a )International Atomic Energy Agency [ IAEA ]
( b )International Monetary Fund [ IMF ]
( c )United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [ UNESCO ]
( d )World Bank [ WB ]
( e )World Health Organization [ WHO ]
( f )United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [ UNHCR ]
( g )United Nations Human Rights Council [ UNHRC ]
( h )United Nations Security Council [ UNSC ]
U.S. Navy Flight 19
More Information for Flight 19
- U.S. Navy Flight 19 disappears over the Bermuda triangle.
1. United States Navy Flight 19 disappears over the Bermuda triangle during December .
2. Flight 19 was a squadron of five Avenger torpedo bombers carrying 14 men that had been on a simple training mission before running into difficulties over the Bermuda triangle.
3. During the mission all of the planes reported having compass and instrument malfunctions and, although it was unclear what actually happened, it is believed that the squadron ran out of fuel and ditched their planes into rough seas.
4. A Mariner aircraft carrying 13 men was then sent out to search for the squadron but also disappeared mysteriously.
5. No evidence of the planes or bodies were ever found during subsequent searches, adding to the mystery surrounding the Bermuda triangle.
6. The Bermuda Triangle is a region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean including the Straits of Florida, the Bahamas and the entire Caribbean island area and the Atlantic east to the Azores.
7. The idea that the Bermuda Triangle is more dangerous than any other part of the oceans can be best described as an urban legend as statistics show that the number of ships or aircraft lost in "the Bermuda Triangle" is no greater than any other area of similar size.
- The British Labour Party Under Clement Attlee defeat Winston Churchill and the Conservative party
- Ho Chi Minh declares independence of Vietnam from France
- "Your Lucky Hit Parade" Broadcast For The First Time
- Orwell published his anti-Stalinist allegory Animal Farm,
- Arthur C. Clarke puts forward the idea of a communications satellite in a Wireless World magazine article.
Born This Year
Don McLean October 2nd
Henry Winkler October 30th
Goldie Hawn November 21st
Bette Midler December 1st
Mia Farrow February 9th -- Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Davy Jones December 30th -- Manchester, England
Steve Martin August 14th -- Waco, Texas, United States
Rod Stewart January 10th -- London, England
- Percy Spencer accidentally discovers that microwaves can heat food
- Only 5,000 homes have Television Sets
- Assembly of the world's first general purpose electronic computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer (ENIAC), is completed. It covers 1800 feet of floor space. The first set of calculations is run on the computer
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
USA by Robert Oppenheimer's team
Percy LeBaron Spencer
Major World Political Leaders
Australia -- Prime Minister -- John Curtin -- Till 5 July
Australia -- Prime Minister -- Frank Forde -- From 6 July
Australia -- Prime Minister -- Frank Forde -- Till 13 July
Australia -- Prime Minister -- Ben Chifley -- From 13 July
Brazil -- President -- Getúlio Vargas -- Till 29 October
Brazil -- President -- José Linhares -- From 29 October
Canada -- Prime Minister -- William Lyon Mackenzie King --
Germany -- Chancellor -- Adolf Hitler -- Till April 30
Germany -- Chancellor -- Joseph Goebbels -- From April 30
Germany -- Chancellor -- Joseph Goebbels -- Till May 1
Italy -- Prime Minister -- Ivanoe Bonomi -- Till 19 June
Italy -- Prime Minister -- Ferruccio Parri -- From 21 June
Italy -- Prime Minister -- Ferruccio Parri -- Till 8 December
Italy -- Prime Minister -- Alcide de Gasperi -- From 10 December
Japan -- Prime Minister -- Kuniaki Koiso -- Till 7 April
Japan -- Prime Minister -- Kantaro Suzuki -- From 7 April
Japan -- Prime Minister -- Kantaro Suzuki -- Till 17 August
Japan -- Prime Minister -- HIH Prince Naruhiko
of Higashikuni -- From 17 August
Japan -- Prime Minister -- HIH Prince Naruhiko
of Higashikuni -- Till 9 October
Japan -- Prime Minister -- Kijuro Shidehara -- From 9 October
Mexico -- President -- Manuel Ávila Camacho --
Russia / Soviet Union -- General Secretary of the Central Committee -- Joseph Stalin --
South Africa -- Prime Minister -- Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts --
United States -- President -- Franklin D. Roosevelt -- Till April 12,
United States -- President -- Harry S. Truman -- From April 12,
United Kingdom -- Prime Minister -- Winston Churchill -- Till 26 July
United Kingdom -- Prime Minister -- Clement Attlee -- From 26 July
British General Election -- -- Clement Attlee ( Labour ) defeats Winston Churchill ( Conservative ) and Archibald Sinclair ( Liberal ) --
Canadian Federal Election -- -- William Lyon Mackenzie King ( Liberal ) defeats John Bracken ( Progressive Conservatives ). --