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What Events Happened in 1933Germany
- Adolf Hitler declared his intentions for a state-sponsored "People's Car" program.
1. Adolf Hitler declared his intentions for a state-sponsored "Volkswagen" program. (1933 )
2. The prefix Volks— ("People's")
3. Basic vehicle capable of transporting two adults and three children at 100 km/h (62 mph)
4. Ferdinand Porsche begins work on The People's Car June 22nd 1934
5. Prototypes of the car called the "KdF-Wagen 1936
6. The building of the new factory for the Volkswagen started 26 May 1938
7. Production is ended with few cars made in 1939 due to World War II
8. After the end of World War II British Army officer Major Ivan Hirst, REME Supervises Production of the Volkswagen at the Factory.
9. The name Volkswagen Beetle was never officially labelled until 1968 ( was called Volkswagen Type 1 up till then.
10. By 1946 the factory was producing 1,000 cars a month
11. British, American and French motor industries were offered the factory and the Volkswagen Beetle
12. Every major manufacturer turned it down saying the car would never sell in quantity.
13. By 1973 there were 16 million Volkswagen Beetle's manufactured.
- Repeal of prohibition in United States allowing 3.2% beer and wine sales when the 21st Amendment is passed repealing the 18th Amendment Available as a downloadable image on our Public Domain Images Page
1. Prohibition, is the practice of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, import, export, sale, and consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages.
2. Prohibition was a reform movement sponsored by evangelical Protestant churches
3. The Anti-Saloon League became the political driving force for Prohibition ( 1890 - 1920 )
4. The 18th Amendment / the Volstead Act ( Prohibition ) began on January 17th, 1920
5. Gangsters, including Al Capone controlled speakeasies and Bootlegging making millions
6. Bootlegging ( illegal business of smuggling alcoholic beverages )
7. Speakeasies ( establishment that illegally sells alcoholic beverages )
8. Speakeasies also called blind pig bars or blind tiger bars
9. Prohibition laws were enforced differently around the country
10. 21st Amendment is passed repealing the 18th Amendment ( Repeal of prohibition ) on December 5, 1933
- Machine gun is demonstrated by Japanese Scientist firing 1,000 shot per minute
1. A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm,
2. The Gatling gun ( required Hand Power ) designed by the American inventor Dr. Richard J. Gatling in 1861
3. The Maxim machine gun was the first self-powered machine gun ( Fired 450-600 rounds/min ) invented by Sir Hiram Maxim in 1884
4. Japanese Scientist shows Machine Gun firing 1,000 shots per minute
5. Current Machine Guns can fire 4,000 shots per minute
- Strong winds strip the topsoil from the drought affected farms in Midwest creating Dust Bowls
1. Due To Farm Automation ( Tractors and Beginning Of Combines ) From 1925 to 1930 Land Under Cultivation Quadruples
2. Poor Farming Practices also increase with agricultural methods used that encouraged erosion.
3. First Severe Dust Storms Begin in Late 1933 stripping away the topsoil
4. Severe Drought begins the following year and Dust Storms Strip away more topsoil leading to the area of the Great Plains Becoming a Dust Bowl
5. Over the next few years due to soil erosion 2.5 million people are forced to leave the Great Plains states because they could no longer earn a living from the land.
5. Following the Dust Bowl years the government implemented massive conservation efforts and education including soil conservation and anti-erosion techniques, including crop rotation, and farmers changed farming practices allowing much of the land to recover.
The Great Depression
- Unemployment In The United States Reaches Highest Level in the winter of 1932 / 1933 with nearly 1 in 3 people unemployed
1. Wall Street Crash Occurs in October 1929
2. Banks Begin to Fail in 1930 ( many through exposure to the market crash )
3. NO Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in place so people withdraw savings from banks making situation worse
4. Smoot–Hawley Tariff act ( June 17th 1930 ) raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels
5. For the first couple of years President Herbert Hoover believed the Economy would sort itself out.
6. By 1932 Hundreds-of-thousands find themselves homeless and began congregating in shanty towns or tent cities ( Hoovervilles ) or travel the country looking for work.
7. President Herbert Hoover signs the Emergency Relief and Construction Act which created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation which released funds for public works projects across the country.
8. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation spent $1.5 billion in 1932, $1.8 billion in 1933, and $1.8 billion in 1934
9. Herbert Hoover is defeated by Franklin D. Roosevelt who becomes US President on March 4th, 1933
10. President Franklin D. Roosevelt does the following during his first year of office to address the Great Depression
11. Incorporates and streamlines Reconstruction Finance Corporation into the "New Deal"
12. National Recovery Administration (NRA) which Set maximum prices and wages and competitive conditions in all industries, Cut farm production so as to raise prices and make it possible to earn a living in farming,
14. President Roosevelt gives his first " fireside chat " on March 12th in a radio broadcast
15. As the number affected by poverty increases diseases including Diphtheria, Tuberculosis and scarlet fever increase
16. President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces the creation of 4 million public works jobs
17. Work Starts on The Golden Gate Bridge
18. Congress agrees to the Home Owners Refinancing Act as part of the larger NEW DEAL
19. The Emergency Banking Act is passed to save the run on small banks causing them to go into bankruptcy
- Albert Einstein emigrates to the United States from Germany
Physicist Albert Einstein renounces his German citizenship as he moves to the United States to become a professor of theoretical physics at Princeton in October of 1933. Einstein had been known as a pacifist and was Jewish, both factors that contributed to his fear of the new Nazi government that was taking over Germany. Einstein went on to urge President Roosevelt to increase American efforts on researching uranium with the intention of developing nuclear weaponry before Germany had a chance to do so. Einstein did not gain his United States citizenship until 1940.
The Great Depression
Around The World
- Nearly every country in the world was suffering from high unemployment
1933 was the one of the worst years during the great depression and Very few countries around the world were not affected and because of the Great Depression many leaders came to power who may not have done in normal times, a good example of this is the rise of Hitler in Germany where unemployment was high and following their defeat in World War I German morale was at an all time low. Back in the thirties each country did their own thing including increasing interest rates, Implementing Import Tariffs, leaving the Gold Standard. Because of lack of a world wide coherent strategy many feel the Great Depression lasted longer than it should have done.
- Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
- Adolf Hitler bans all other political parties turning Germany into a One Party State
- The Reichstag passes the Enabling Act, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany. and the Gestapo is established
- Germany Quits the League of Nations causing concern over German Intentions towards France and other European Countries.
- Physicist Leo Szilard has the idea that a nuclear chain reaction is possible.
Physicist Leo Szilard comes up with the idea for a nuclear chain reaction on the 12th of September in 1933 while in London. In 1934 he filed for a patent on his idea of a “neutronic reactor.” He continued to work on this idea and joined forces with another famed physicist Enrico Fermi. They came to the conclusion that an atomic bomb could be made with Uranium. Due to this conclusion, in 1939 Szilard wrote a letter to President Roosevelt that was signed by Albert Einstein urging the U.S. government to research and develop nuclear weaponry before Nazi Germany could do so themselves. This lead to the creation of the Manhattan Project. In 1942, Szilard and Fermi created the first man-made self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction in December of 1942.
- The inoculation in the fight against diphtheria begins in the Western World
- The 20th Amendment to the US Constitution Is Ratified on January 23rd which establishes the beginning and ending of the terms of the elected federal officials.
- Wiley Post becomes the first man to fly solo around the world
- Alcatraz becomes a federal penitentiary.
- The dirigible airship "The Akron" crashes
- On September 30th British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returns from Germany and announced to the world "Peace In Our Time"
- Typhus Epidemic strikes thousands in Moscow
- Civil War In Cuba forcing American businesses to close up shop.
- Yellow River breaches it's banks in China creating mass starvation in 33 due to crop failure.
- Tornado's strike Kentucky and Tennessee leaving 61 dead
- The Loch Ness Monster is sighted for the first time in modern times on May 2nd
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Electron Microscope Germany by Ernst Ruska
Drive in Movie Theater USA by Richard Hollingshead
- Shirley Temple signs a contract with Fox when she was 5 years old
- The original King Kong Movie is shown
- The First ever drive in Theatre is established in New Jersey
- The Chocolate chip cookie is invented
- The Board Game Monopoly is invented
Born This YearJoan Collins May 23rd
Larry King November 19th
Yoko Ono February 18th
Roman Polanski August 18th
Michael Caine March 14th -- London, England
Michael Dukakis November 3rd -- Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.
Marty Feldman July 8th -- London, England
Jayne Mansfield April 19th -- Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, United States
Kray Twins October 24th -- Hoxton, East London, England
Willie Nelson April 30th -- Abbott, Texas, U.S.
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister Joseph Lyons Brazil President Getúlio Vargas Canada Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett
Germany Chancellor Adolf Hitler From January 30
Italy Prime Minister Benito Mussolini
Japan Prime Minister Makoto Saito Mexico President Abelardo L. Rodríguez Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister James Barry Munnik Hertzog United States President Herbert Hoover Till March 4,
United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt From March 4,
United Kingdom Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald