1930 was the first year of the great depression , television was just starting to gain momentum but the high unemployment of 8.9% caused problems in every area of life . This was felt worldwide and many countries could see political change starting for example Germany where Adolf Hitler's National Socialists become the second largest party.


Cost of Living 1930

How Much things cost The Yearly Inflation Percentage USA ? UK - 2.8%
Average Cost of new house $7,145.00 , Average wages per year $1,970.00 , Cost of a gallon of Gas 10 cents , Average Cost for house rent $15.00 per month , A loaf of Bread 9 cents , A LB of Hamburger Meat 13 cents , Magic Chef Gas Cooker $195.00 , Pontiac Big Six Car $745.00

Prices for UK guides in Pounds Sterling , Average House Price 590


What News Events Happened

United States
  • President Herbert Hoover signs the 1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff bill on June 17th which raised duties on imports
More Information and Timeline for the Smoot-Hawley Tariff
1. The world economy begins to enter the Great Depression in late 1929 when the stock market crashes.
2. Politicians panic and start to turn to protectionism in order to try to prevent further loss of American jobs and commerce from competition abroad.
3. US Senator Reed Smoot begins calling for an increase in tariffs in 1929.
4. The Tariff Act of 1930 is passed by the United States Congress and it proposes an increase of tariffs on foreign imports.
5. 1,028 Economists try to convince President Hoover to veto the tariff bill, saying it will only cause more damage to the economy.
6. Despite personally disagreeing with the increase in tariffs, Hoover signs the bill due to party pressure and pressure from some business leaders.
7. Foreign countries retaliate with their own increased tariffs and trade alliances shift as an impact of the bill.
8. Both Reed Smoot and Willis Hawley lose their bids for re-election in 1932, partially due to the failure of the tariffs.
9. The tariffs were lowered under President Franklin Roosevelt's first term with the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934.
10. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act raised US tariffs on foreign imports to one of their highest ever levels in the country's history. While the tariffs did not cause the Great Depression, many people thought that they contributed a lot to the failing economy. Many historians agree that while they were not helpful in repairing the economy during that time period, they did not have as large an impact as was first believed.

U.S.
  • The United States embarks on an ambitious programme of Public Works to regenerate the economy including the building of the Boulder Dam ( Hoover Dam )
India
  • Mahatma Gandhi and his followers begin a 200 mile march to the salt beds of Jalalpur.
More Information and Timeline for the Salt March
1. The Salt March was Mohandas Gandhi's non-violent protest that took place from March to April of 1930, they marched from Sabermati to Dandi.
2. This was the first of his acts of civil disobedience against British rule in India.
3. There was a British monopoly on salt and India was not allowed to produce or sell salt independently.
4. The march started on March 12th, 1930, on foot with a few dozen followers.
5. Hundreds of others joined in as they stopped in each town along the way.
6. They finished their journey on April 5th after traveling 240 miles.
7. On April 6th, Gandhi and others picked up salt on the shore of the Arabian Sea to "produce salt" and technically broke the law.
8. No one was arrested in this first act of civil disobedience.
9. Gandhi continued his protests and civil disobedience against the salt tax for two months afterwards.
10. He was arrested in May of 1930 after announcing plans to march on the Dharasana Salt Works.
11. News of Gandhi's arrest motivated thousands more to join in protest and the planned march took place on May 21st.
12. Up to 2,500 of the peaceful protesters were attacked by police.
13. By the end of 1930, over 50,000 people had been jailed.
14. In January of 1931, Gandhi was released from prison and a truce was declared between himself and the Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin.

United States
  • The United States and the world suffer from the Great Depression.
More Information and Timeline for the Great Depression
1. The Wall Street crash happens in late 1929 and by 1930, 1,350 banks fail in the US.
2. Unemployment in the United Kingdom hits one million, while it reaches 8.7 percent in the United States (over 3.2 million people, nearly double what it was in previous years).
3. The Federal Reserve cuts interest rates to 4 percent, down from 6 percent.
4. Consumers and businesses panic and pull their money out of banks after the stock market crash.
5. The Worldwide economic decline reaches its worst point in 1933.

U.S.
  • Following the Wall Street Crash 1350 banks in the US fail
Turkey
  • The City of Constantinople in Turkey changes its name to Istanbul
Dominican Republic
  • Hurricane Strikes Dominican Republic With 200 mph winds leaving more than 8,000 people dead.
U.S.
  • Fire at Ohio State Penitentiary on April 21st kills 320 inmates
UK
  • UK Unemployment Reaches 1 million
UK
  • Britain's Largest Airship the R101 crashes in Beauvais, France, killing all on board.
U.S.
  • US 1930 Unemployment figures show 8.7% of the population are unemployed
U.S.
  • US suffers worst ever drought causing hardship in farming community and leading to dust bowl years
U.S.
  • Gangsters ( Scarface ) gangster is jailed for income tax evasion
Uruquay
  • Uruguay wins the 1930 World Cup in Uruguay defeating Argentina
Argentina
  • Military Coup In Argentina
More Information and Timeline for Argentina Coup
The Argentinean government is overthrown by a coup d’état on the 6th of September in 1930. Hipólito Yrigoyen was the president of the country but he was quickly forced out of power by General Jóse Félix Uriburu as General Uriburu led his loyal troops to the capital and were met with very little opposition to the coup. Yrigoyen had been democratically elected in 1928, but had become unpopular as the Great Depression hit the world economies, causing high inflation and unemployment in Argentina. Future president Juan Perón was involved in the coup.

Ethiopia
  • Haile Selassie is crowned Emperor / "King of Kings of Ethiopia"
U.S.
  • Prohibition Enforcement is Strengthened and moved to the justice department
Germany
  • The first flight across the South Atlantic From Germany to Brazil of the Graf Zeppelin Airship




Technology

Australia
  • Amy Johnson lands in Darwin Australia on May 24th, becoming the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia
UK
  • For the first time anywhere in the world, a television drama is broadcast. The drama is a production of Luigi Pirandello's The Man With the Flower in His Mouth; it is broadcast by the BBC from Baird's studios at 133 Long Acre, London.
UK
  • Frank Whittle patents the Jet Engine
UK
  • Sliced bread Goes on Sale in England for the first time
U.S.
  • The Chrysler Building in New York is Completed
Space
  • Clyde Tombaugh Discovers Pluto the ninth planet in our solar system

Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Jet Engine England by Frank Whittle
Sticky Tape USA
Frozen Food USA Clarence Birdseye

Popular Culture

  • FILM All Quiet on the Western Front

  • SONG Three Little Words Duke Ellington

  • SONG Strike up the band Red Nichols

  • The US Population reaches 123 million

  • Frozen Foods are sold commercially for the first time




Born This Year 1930

Neil Armstrong August 5th
Sean Connery August 25th
Warren Buffett August 30th
Steve McQueen March 24th
Buzz Aldrin January 20th -- Glen Ridge, New Jersey, U.S.
The Big Bopper October 24th -- Sabine Pass, Texas, USA
Ray Charles September 23rd -- Albany, Georgia, USA
Ray Charles September 23rd -- Albany, Georgia, USA
Clint Eastwood May 31st -- San Francisco, California, U.S.
Gene Hackman January 30th -- San Bernardino, California, U.S
Princess Margaret August 21st -- Glamis Castle, Scotland
Sandra Day O'Connor March 26th -- El Paso, Texas, U.S
Harold Pinter October 10th -- Hackney, East London, England

1930 Calendar


Major World Political Leaders

Australia Prime Minister James Scullin Brazil President Washington Luís Till 24 October
Brazil President Military Joint Tri From 24 October
Canada Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King till August 6,
Canada Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett From August 7,
Italy Prime Minister Benito Mussolini

Japan Prime Minister Osachi Hamaguchi Mexico President Emilio Portes Gil Till 5 February
Mexico President Pascual Ortiz Rubio From 5 February
Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister James Barry Munnik Hertzog United States President Herbert Hoover United Kingdom Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald

Political Elections


Canadian Federal Election 1930 Richard Bennett ( Conservative ) defeats William Lyon Mackenzie King ( Liberal ).