What Happened in 1930 Important News and Events, Key Technology and Popular Culture
1930 Major News Stories including first year of the great depression, Prohibition Enforcement is Strengthened, Graf Zeppelin Airship Completes Flight From Germany to Brazil, Mahatma Gandhi begins 200 mile march to the salt beds of Jalalpur to protest British Rule, 1350 banks in the US fail, Smoot-Hawley Tariff bill signed raising duties on imports, Public Works programs begin, ...
1930 was the first year of the great depression , television was just starting to gain momentum but the high unemployment of 8.9% caused problems in every area of life . This was felt worldwide and many countries could see political change starting for example Germany where Adolf Hitler's National Socialists become the second largest party.
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-- Popular Culture
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-- Cost Of Living
How Much things cost
The Yearly Inflation Percentage USA
? UK - 2.8%
Average Cost of new house $7,145.00
Average wages per year $1,970.00
Cost of a gallon of Gas 10 cents
Average Cost for house rent $15.00 per month
A loaf of Bread 9 cents
A LB of Hamburger Meat 13 cents
Magic Chef Gas Cooker $195.00
Pontiac Big Six Car $745.00
Prices for UK guides in Pounds Sterling
Average House Price 590
United States -- Smoot-Hawley Tariff bill
More Information and Timeline for the Smoot-Hawley Tariff
- President Herbert Hoover signs the Smoot-Hawley Tariff bill on June 17th which raised duties on imports
1. The world economy begins to enter the Great Depression in late 1929 when the stock market crashes.
2. Politicians panic and start to turn to protectionism in order to try to prevent further loss of American jobs and commerce from competition abroad.
3. US Senator Reed Smoot begins calling for an increase in tariffs in 1929
4. The Tariff Act is passed by the United States Congress and it proposes an increase of tariffs on foreign imports.
5. 1,028 Economists try to convince President Hoover to veto the tariff bill, saying it will only cause more damage to the economy.
6. Despite personally disagreeing with the increase in tariffs, Hoover signs the bill due to party pressure and pressure from some business leaders.
7. Foreign countries retaliate with their own increased tariffs and trade alliances shift as an impact of the bill.
8. Both Reed Smoot and Willis Hawley lose their bids for re-election in 1932, partially due to the failure of the tariffs.
9. The tariffs were lowered under President Franklin Roosevelt's first term with the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934.
10. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act raised US tariffs on foreign imports to one of their highest ever levels in the country's history. While the tariffs did not cause the Great Depression, many people thought that they contributed a lot to the failing economy. Many historians agree that while they were not helpful in repairing the economy during that time period, they did not have as large an impact as was first believed.
India -- 200 mile march to the salt beds of Jalalpur
More Information and Timeline for the Salt March
- Mahatma Gandhi and his followers begin a 200 mile march to the salt beds of Jalalpur.
1. The Salt March was Mohandas Gandhi's non-violent protest that took place from March to April they marched from Sabermati to Dandi.
2. This was the first of his acts of civil disobedience against British rule in India.
3. There was a British monopoly on salt and India was not allowed to produce or sell salt independently.
4. The march started on March
12th, on foot with a few dozen followers.
5. Hundreds of others joined in as they stopped in each town along the way.
6. They finished their journey on April 5th after traveling 240 miles.
7. On April 6th, Gandhi and others picked up salt on the shore of the Arabian Sea to "produce salt" and technically broke the law.
8. No one was arrested in this first act of civil disobedience.
9. Gandhi continued his protests and civil disobedience against the salt tax for two months afterwards.
10. He was arrested in May after announcing plans to march on the Dharasana Salt Works.
11. News of Gandhi's arrest motivated thousands more to join in protest and the planned march took place on May 21st.
12. Up to 2,500 of the peaceful protesters were attacked by police.
13. By the end of the year, over 50,000 people had been jailed.
14. In January of 1931
, Gandhi was released from prison and a truce was declared between himself and the Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin.
United States -- Great Depression
More Information and Timeline for the Great Depression
- The United States and the world suffer from the Great Depression.
1. The Wall Street crash happens in late 1929 and by 1930, 1,350 banks fail in the US.
2. Unemployment in the United Kingdom hits one million, while it reaches 8.7 percent in the United States (over 3.2 million people, nearly double what it was in previous years).
3. The Federal Reserve cuts interest rates to 4 percent, down from 6 percent.
4. Consumers and businesses panic and pull their money out of banks after the stock market crash.
5. The Worldwide economic decline reaches its worst point in 1933.
Ethiopia -- Haile Selassie
More Information for Haile Selassie.
- Haile Selassie I becomes the Emperor of Ethiopia.
Tafari Makonnen, also known as Haile Selassie I, became the Emperor of Ethiopia during November . He was known for his efforts to bring Ethiopia into the international community by joining the League of Nations and, later, the United Nations. Selassie remained in power until 1974, despite having been exiled between 1936
and 1941. Selassie, while praised for his attempts to modernize the country was also criticized for maintaining poor political and civil rights standards.
France -- R101 crashes in Beauvais
More Information and Timeline for R-101 Airship Crash
- Britain's Largest Airship the R101 crashes in Beauvais, France, killing all on board.
1. The R-101 airship was built in October of 1929 by the British government along with another airship, the R-100.
2. The airships were built with the purpose of long distance travel for civil purposes within the British Empire, such as passenger travel and transporting mail. At the time it was the largest airship ever built.
3. The R-101 crashed on October 5th over France while on its very first overseas trip.
4. It was carrying 54 people and of these only 6 survived the crash.
5. The tragedy was one of the biggest of its kind and led to the eventual abandonment of the British on airship development.
Uruguay -- Wins World Cup
More Information for the first World Cup.
- Uruguay wins the World Cup in Uruguay defeating Argentina.
The very first FIFA World Cup takes place during July in Montevideo, Uruguay. The World Cup was envisioned as an international tournament for soccer after it was announced that the sport would be dropped from the upcoming 1932 Olympic Games. The very first games in the World Cup were played between France against Mexico and the United States against Belgium. The entire tournament was won by the host Uruguay after they defeated Argentina. Unfortunately, several of the top European teams, including England, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Holland, missed the inaugural cup due to the Great Depression and the high cost of travel.
United States -- Betty Boop
More Information for Betty Boop.
- The cartoon character of Betty Boop makes her debut in "Dizzy Dishes."
The character of Betty Boop makes her debut during August in "Dizzy Dishes" a part of Max Fleischer's "Talkartoon" animated series. The character was originally designed by Grim Natwick who would go on to become a lead animator in the production of other successful characters like Mickey Mouse, Felix the Cat, and Popeye. Betty Boop was believed to be modeled after several actresses that embodied the popular "Flapper" style of the 1920's
, such as Helen Kane and Clara Bow. She was voiced by several notable actresses including Margie Hines, Ann Rothschild, and Mae Questel. The character soon grew in popularity throughout the 1930's
and has remained a beloved cultural staple.
Argentina -- Military Coup
More Information and Timeline for Argentina Coup
- Military Coup In Argentina
The Argentinean government is overthrown by a coup d'état on the 6th of September . Hipólito Yrigoyen was the president of the country but he was quickly forced out of power by General Jóse Félix Uriburu as General Uriburu led his loyal troops to the capital and were met with very little opposition to the coup. Yrigoyen had been democratically elected in 1928, but had become unpopular as the Great Depression hit the world economies, causing high inflation and unemployment in Argentina. Future president Juan Perón was involved in the coup.
Worldwide - Pluto Discovered
Pluto is discovered during February
of 1930. It was discovered by astronomer Clyde W. Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. It was originally thought to be the ninth planet of the solar system. The discovery was publicly announced a month later on the anniversary of the discovery of Uranus. Tombaugh found Pluto by using a blink microscope to switch rapidly between sets of photographic plates to detect subtle changes and movements, a new technique at the time. In 2006
, the International Astronomical Union downgraded Pluto from a planet to a dwarf planet.
United States - Chrysler Building Opens
1. The Chrysler Building is completed and opens during May
2. It was designed in the popular Art Deco style by architect William Van Alen.
3. It was the tallest building in the world at a height of 1,046 feet for about a year until the Empire State Building was completed in 1931
4. The Chrysler Building was built for Walter Chrysler and it functioned as the headquarters for the Chrysler Corporation until the 1950s
5. The building’s facade is notable for its decorative stainless steel, geometric shapes, elaborate masonry, and car-themed elements.
6. Since its completion it has become an iconic part of the New York City skyline as well as a prime example of the Art Deco architectural style.
Calendar For The Year 1930
- The United States embarks on an ambitious programme of Public Works to regenerate the economy including the building of the Boulder Dam ( Hoover Dam )
1350 banks in the US fail
- Following the Wall Street Crash 1350 banks in the US fail
- The City of Constantinople in Turkey changes its name to Istanbul
Dominican -- Deadly Hurricane
- Hurricane Strikes Dominican Republic With 200 mph winds leaving more than 8,000 people dead.
Ohio State Penitentiary
- Fire at Ohio State Penitentiary on April 21st kills 320 inmates
UK -- Unemployment 1 million
- UK Unemployment Reaches 1 million
U.S.A. -- Unemployment
- US Unemployment figures show 8.7% of the population are unemployed
U.S. -- worst ever drought
- US suffers worst ever drought causing hardship in farming community and leading to dust bowl years
U.S. -- Scarface
- Gangsters ( Scarface ) gangster is jailed for income tax evasion
U.S. -- Prohibition
- Prohibition Enforcement is Strengthened and moved to the justice department
- The first flight across the South Atlantic From Germany to Brazil of the Graf Zeppelin Airship
- FILM All Quiet on the Western Front
- SONG Three Little Words Duke Ellington
- SONG Strike up the band Red Nichols
- The US Population reaches 123 million
- Frozen Foods are sold commercially for the first time
Born This Year
Neil Armstrong August 5th
Sean Connery August 25th
Warren Buffett August 30th
Steve McQueen March 24th
Buzz Aldrin January 20th -- Glen Ridge, New Jersey, U.S.
The Big Bopper October 24th -- Sabine Pass, Texas, USA
Ray Charles September 23rd -- Albany, Georgia, USA
Ray Charles September 23rd -- Albany, Georgia, USA
Clint Eastwood May 31st -- San Francisco, California, U.S.
Gene Hackman January 30th -- San Bernardino, California, U.S
Princess Margaret August 21st -- Glamis Castle, Scotland
Sandra Day O'Connor March 26th -- El Paso, Texas, U.S
Harold Pinter October 10th -- Hackney, East London, England
- Amy Johnson lands in Darwin Australia on May 24th, becoming the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia
- For the first time anywhere in the world, a television drama is broadcast. The drama is a production of Luigi Pirandello's The Man With the Flower in His Mouth; it is broadcast by the BBC from Baird's studios at 133 Long Acre, London.
- Frank Whittle patents the Jet Engine
- Sliced bread Goes on Sale in England for the first time
- The Chrysler Building in New York is Completed
- Clyde Tombaugh Discovers Pluto the ninth planet in our solar system
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
England by Frank Whittle
USA Clarence Birdseye
Major World Political Leaders
Australia -- Prime Minister -- James Scullin --
Brazil -- President -- Washington Luís -- Till 24 October
Brazil -- President -- Military Joint Tri -- From 24 October
Canada -- Prime Minister -- William Lyon Mackenzie King -- till August 6,
Canada -- Prime Minister -- Richard Bedford Bennett -- From August 7,
Italy -- Prime Minister -- Benito Mussolini --
Japan -- Prime Minister -- Osachi Hamaguchi --
Mexico -- President -- Emilio Portes Gil -- Till 5 February
Mexico -- President -- Pascual Ortiz Rubio -- From 5 February
Russia / Soviet Union -- General Secretary of the Central Committee -- Joseph Stalin --
South Africa -- Prime Minister -- James Barry Munnik Hertzog --
United States -- President -- Herbert Hoover --
United Kingdom -- Prime Minister -- Ramsay MacDonald --
Canadian Federal Election -- -- Richard Bennett ( Conservative ) defeats William Lyon Mackenzie King ( Liberal ).