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What Events Happened in 1931
- The Great Plains suffers devastating droughts, dust storms, and soil erosion during the Dust Bowl years. Farms suffer and massive ecological damage is done to the Midwestern and Southern Plains areas of the country.
1. The United States Congress passes the Homestead Act of 1862 and settlers move into the Great Plains and begin farming the lands.
2. Farmers plant dry wheat in the Great Plains prairies and continue to plow and plant millions of acres. This over-working of the land is one of the main reasons that the Dust Bowl became so devastating and lasted so long.
3. A drought hits the Midwestern and Plains states in 1931, dust from the overworked land begins creating dust storms.
4. The drought worsens in 1932 and more dust storms are reported.
5. The drought continues in 1933 and many farmers face foreclosures as the Great Depression also worsens. The Emergency Farm Mortgage Act and the Farm Credit Act are created to help save farms.
6. Many farmers flee from the Plains and abandon their farms in hopes of finding work in California.
7. The drought becomes the worst in US history during 1934 and a total of twenty-seven states are affected by it.
8. The Taylor Grazing Act goes into effect in 1934 and created heavily monitored grazing districts. It was used to help stem the damage caused by over-grazing the land.
9. The Drought Relief Service is created and starts buying cattle from struggling farmers in 1935.
10. The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act is created in April of 1935 and it forms the Works Progress Administration as well as providing hundreds of millions of dollars of drought relief.
11. The Black Sunday dust blizzard hits on April 14th, 1935 and is the worst dust storm of the Dust Bowl Years. It does massive amounts of damage to lands and property.
12. The Soil Conservation Service is established with the aim of developing topsoil preservation programs in 1935.
13. Recovery efforts continue in 1937 with the Shelterbelt Project. This project would utilize the Civilian Conservation Corps to plant native trees throughout the Great Plains, another program to help stop soil erosion.
14. The drought still continues in 1938, work intended to help with the problems caused by the drought and programs aimed at preventing further land issues continue as well.
15. The drought ends in 1939 and the Plains states continue to recover and re-work the land with more soil-friendly and sustainable farming techniques and a better understanding of how to farm those lands.
- Empire State Building is completed and opens on May 1st, and becomes the tallest building in the world , it is a 102-story contemporary Art Deco style building in New York City
1. The Empire State building was designed by William F. Lamb.
2. Excavation of the building site started on January 22nd of 1930.
3. Construction began on March 17th, 1930.
4. The Empire State Building officially opened on May 1st, 1931 and it was the world's tallest building until 1970.
- King Alfonso XIII of Spain is forced to live in Exile in Rome following Spain Becoming a Republic
1. General Miguel Primo de Rivera is overthrown as Spain's leader on January 28th, 1930.
2. Several Republican factions join together with the intention of overthrowing the Spanish monarchy and they form the Pact of San Sebastian.
3. Republicans won the April 12th, 1931 municipal elections in a landslide.
4. On April 14th, 1931, the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed.
5. King Alfonso XIII goes into exile after the Second Spanish Republic is created.
6. A provisional government is then formed under Niceto Alcala-Zamora.
7. A new constitution is drafted in June of 1931 and it is the law of the land by December of that year.
8. A civil war erupts in Spain, however the constitution of the Second Spanish Republic remains in effect until 1939 when the Spanish Civil War ended.
- Wiley Post and Harold Gatty complete their around-the-world flight.
Aviator Wiley Post and navigator Harold Gatty began their record-breaking around-the-world flight during June of 1931. Post and Gatty took off from New York in their plane, the Winnie Mae, and made several stops as they traveled around the globe. Trouble with their propeller held them up in Alaska and after they had it replaced they resumed their journey. Post and Gatty successfully completed their trip of over 15,000 miles returning to New York in just over 8 days, eclipsing Hugo Eckner’s previous record of 21 days in the Graf Zeppelin. Post would later become the first person to successfully complete a solo around-the-world flight two years later in 1933.
- The first Warner Bros' Merrie Melodies cartoon is created.
Warner Bros. creates their first “Merrie Melodies” cartoon “Lady, Play Your Mandolin!” during August of 1931. The cartoon was about seven minutes long and featured the character of “Foxy” who looked similar to Disney’s “Mickey Mouse” character. The “Merrie Melodies” series was created by the same team that created “Looney Tunes” during 1930 and many “Merrie Melodies” cartoons would go on to feature Looney Tunes characters. Merrie Melodies was primarily created to feature Warner Bros. music and to be used as advertisements for recordings and sheet music in what could be considered an early version of a music video. Merrie Melodies shorts would continue to be produced until 1969.
- Hawke's Bay earthquake of 1931, also known as the Napier earthquake destroys much of Napier in New Zealand and measures 7.8 on the Richter scale.
- Yellow River flood (Huang He flood) is generally thought to be the deadliest natural disaster of historic times, and almost certainly of the twentieth century and kills between 900,000-2,000,000 people in China
- Japan invades Manchuria in China
- US Unemployment reaches 8 million
- The State of Nevada Senate voted to legalize all forms of gambling
- Chicago runs out of money and can not pay it's teachers for 2 months
- Prices of consumer goods drop an estimated 17 percent from 1930
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- U.S. National Anthem becomes The Star Spangled Banner on March 3rd
The “Star Spangled Banner” is officially adopted as the national anthem of the United States during March of 1931. The song’s lyrics were from a poem written by Francis Scott Key in 1814 during the War of 1812 while the music was taken from song “To Anacreon in Heaven” which was believed to have been written some time in the late 1700s by British composer John Stafford Smith. The notoriously difficult to sing anthem had previously been used by the United States Navy in the late 1800s but it did not become the official national anthem until the United States Congress passed a resolution and President Hoover signed it into law in 1931. Prior to 1931 the country did not actually have an official national anthem.
- George Washington Bridge opens on March 19th connecting New York and New Jersey
- The classic horror film "Dracula" is released.
The classic horror film “Dracula” starring Bela Lugosi as the title character premieres during February of 1931 at the Roxy Theater in New York City. The film was directed by Tod Browning and was the first film to legally adapt Bram Stoker’s Gothic vampire novel, with the film “Nosferatu” having done so in 1922 but without the rights to the story. The film also took many cues from the stage play with the same name that was created by Hamilton Deane and John Balderston in 1924. “Dracula” was a hit after its release and was praised by many critics who seemed to particularly appreciate Lugosi’s performance. In 2000 the film was selected to be preserved by the Library of Congress.
- Population US 122 million
- Chicago Tunnel Explosion and Fire
- Ford ends production of the Ford Model A and prepares for the new Ford V8
- Work starts on March 11th on the Boulder Dam
- On April 6th First Children's Serial Little Orphan Annie is transmitted on Radio
- Population Great Britain 46 million
- Great Britain Abandons Gold Standard
- As the great depression spreads world wide thousands of British ships are rusting in harbors because there are no goods to export
- Number of Cars Produced World Wide 36 Million
- Following the Wall Street Crash 2500 banks in the US fail
- Australia Gains Independence From Great Britain
- More Television is broadcast and RCA places a transmitter at the top of The Empire State Building
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Electric Razor USA by Jacob Schick
Nylon USA by Wallace Corothers - artificial silk
Aerosol Can Norway by Erik Rotheim
- FILM Frankenstein
- FILM Mata Hari
- FILM City Lights starring Charles Chaplin
- MUSIC " Just One More Chance " Bing Crosby
Born This Year 1931Angie Dickinson September 30th
Boris Yeltsin February 1st
James Dean February 8th
William Shatner March 22nd
Anne Bancroft September 17th -- The Bronx, New York, U.S.
John Le Carré October 19th -- Poole, Dorset, England
Angie Dickinson September 30th -- Kulm, North Dakota, U.S.
Robert Duvall January 5th -- San Diego, California, U.S.
Larry Hagman September 21st -- Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.
Rupert Murdoch March 11th -- Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Leonard Nimoy March 26th -- Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Willie Shoemaker August 19th -- Fabens, Texas, United States
Desmond Tutu October 7th -- Klerksdorp, Transvaal, South Africa
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister James Scullin Brazil President Military Joint Tri Till 3 November
Brazil President Getúlio Vargas From 3 November
Canada Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett
Italy Prime Minister Benito Mussolini
Japan Prime Minister Osachi Hamaguchi Till 14 April
Japan Prime Minister Reijiro Wakatsuki From 14 April
Japan Prime Minister Reijiro Wakatsuki Till 13 December
Japan Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai From 13 December
Mexico President Pascual Ortiz Rubio Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister James Barry Munnik Hertzog United States President Herbert Hoover United Kingdom Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
British General Election 1931 Stanley Baldwin ( Conservative ) defeats Arthur Henderson ( Labour ) and Sir Herbert Samuel ( Liberal )
Due to the effects of the great depression although Conservative won a large majority Ramsay MacDonald stays on as The British Prime Minister in a (National Government)