What Happened in 1959 Important News and Events, Key Technology and Popular Culture Major Major News Stories include Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba after Revolution, The Dalai Lama is forced to flee Tibet, Barbie Doll Launched, Alaska becomes the 49th State and Hawaii becomes the 50th state, St. Lawrence Seaway is completed, NASA introduces America's first astronauts to the world including John H. Glenn Jr, and Alan Shepard Jr, US Launches first Weather Station in Space,
1959 the unemployment problems eased to 5.5%. Television programmes included "Rawhide", "Bonanza" and "The Twilight Zone", movies included "Some Like it Hot", "Ben Hur" and "North by Northwest". Alaska is admitted to the union and becomes the 49th state and Hawaii is admitted to the the Union and became the 50th State. The Boeing 707 Jet Airliner comes into service and little girls love the Barbie Dolls created by Ruth Handler and made by Mattel. Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba.
Yearly Inflation Rate USA 1.01%
Yearly Inflation Rate UK 0.9%
Average Cost of new house $12,400.00
Average wages per year - $5,010.00
Kodak Movie camera $67.50Average Cost of a new car $2,200.00
Loaf of Bread 20 cent
Kraft Cheese Slices 32 cents pk
Maine Brick House good residential area 12 rooms 4 baths 2 acres $7,000
gallon of Gas 25 cents
Average House Price UK - 2,410
Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba after Revolution with the first communist state in the westMore Information and Timeline For Cuban Revolution
1. 1952 -Former Cuban President Fulgencio Batista leads a military coup and takes power
2. 1953 - A group of rebels led by Fidel Castro attack the Moncada Barracks, the attack fails and Batista suspends many constitutional rights in retaliation
3. 1954 - Batista is elected virtually unopposed as the opposition either boycotts the election or is intimidated into dropping out of the race
4. 1955 - Fidel Castro and all other political prisoners are released from prison by Batista due to political pressures
5. 1955 - Fidel & Raul Castro flee to Mexico and meet revolutionary Che Guevara. They begin plans for a revolution to overthrow Batista
6. 1956 - Fidel Castro and a number of revolutionaries sail to Cuba from Mexico
7. 1957 - Castro and the few original revolutionaries that were left after several casualties gather support while hiding out in the Sierra Maestra mountains. They are able to launch a few successful attacks against the Cuban army
8. 1958 - Castro's rebels are successful at holding back the Cuban army despite being outnumbered and suffering losses
9. 1958 - The United States of America imposes an arms embargo on Cuba
10. 1958 - Guevara's guerilla troops attack and capture Santa Clara and Cienfuego's guerilla army is victorious in the Battle of Yaguajay
11. January 1959 - Batista flees from Cuba
12. January - Castro and the victorious revolutionaries arrive in Havana
13. Manuel Urrutia Lleo becomes Cuba's new president and Jose Miro Cardona becomes Prime Minister
14. February - Fidel Castro becomes Prime Minister of Cuba and Miro goes into exile
15. Castro forces Urrutia out of office and appoints Osvaldo Dorticos as president and Castro is now known as the Premier of Cuba
Castro then aligns himself with Soviet Russia after being rebuffed by the United States
United States Vice President Richard Nixon and the Soviet Union’s Premier Nikita Khrushchev engage in an impromptu debate on July 24th. The exchange took place at a U.S. trade show being held in Moscow. Known as the “Kitchen Debate,” the two leaders argued the merits of capitalism and communism while standing in a model of a modern kitchen displayed for the American National Exhibition. The whole encounter was filmed by American press and aired in both nations.
1. 1913 - Tibet declares independence
2. 1935 - 14th reincarnation of the Dalai Lama is born
3. 1949 - Mao Zedong founds The People's Republic of China
4. 1950 - The Dalai Lama becomes Tibet's head of state at 15 years old
5. 1950 - China forces Tibetan leaders to sign a treaty that allows China to set up military headquarters in Lhasa but also gives Tibet autonomy and religious freedom, called the "Seventeen Point Agreement"
6. 1954 - The Dalai Lama participates in talks with Mao Zedong in Beijing, but China does not honor the Seventeen Point Agreement
7. 1959 - Tibetans revolt against the Chinese in Lhasa, but the uprising is suppressed8. The Dalai Lama and tens of thousands of Tibetans flee to India
The Dalai Lama is still in exile but has continued to try to work for peace between Tibet and China
1. 1893 - American sugar growers and business men stage a coup to overthrow Queen Lili'uokalani and create the Republic of Hawaii
2. 1898 - The Republic of Hawaii becomes a United States territory
3. 1941 - Pearl Harbor is attacked by Japan and Hawaii becomes essential to the Pacific war effort
4. 1947 - Delegate Joseph Farrington from Hawaii introduces H.R. 49 to help Hawaii become a state
5. 1950 - The Hawaii Constitution documents are approved
6. 1954 - A petition for Hawaii's statehood with 116,000 signatures is taken to the United States Congress
7. 1955 - The Hawaii-Alaska join statehood bill is not approved by the US Congress
8. 1957 - John Burns becomes Hawaii's territorial delegate to Congress and is highly influential in Hawaii's acceptance as a state
9. 1959 - US President Eisenhower signs the Hawaii Admission Act into law and Hawaii becomes the 50th state in the United States of America
10. William F. Quinn is elected as the state's first governor
The US Grammy Music Awards Started
The last musical from Rodgers and Hammerstein "The Sound of Music" opens on broadway
The chartered plane transporting musicians Buddy Holly, Richie Valens, and the Big Bopper goes down in an Iowa snowstorm, killing all four occupants on board. The tragedy is later termed "The Day the Music Died," popularized in Don McLean's song, "American Pie."
The Film Ben-Hur premieres in New York City
Some Like It Hot
Anatomy of a Murder
North by Northwest
Adventures of Ozzie & Harriet
Father Knows Best
Bonanza premieres on NBC, the first weekly television series broadcast completely in color
Juke Box Jury premieres on BBC Television
Dixon of Dock Green (UK)
The Huckleberry Hound Show
1. In May, two monkeys became the first monkeys to survive a space flight.
2. Able, a rhesus monkey, and Baker, a squirrel monkey, were launched into space from Cape Canaveral by the United States Army on a Jupiter AM-18 rocket.
3. They reached an altitude of about 360 miles and their flight lasted about 15 minutes in total.
4. They successfully returned to Earth, splashing down about 1,500 miles away from the launch site, near Puerto Rico in the Atlantic Ocean and were recovered.
5. Able and Baker were not the first animals to survive space flight as the United States launched fruit flies that were successfully recovered in 1947 and the Soviet Union had several dogs that were recovered from sub-orbital flight in the early 1950s.
1. NASA launches the Pioneer 4 spacecraft on March 3rd.
2. Pioneer 4 was the first American spacecraft to exit the orbit of Earth.
3. The Soviet Union had already achieved the same feat in January with their Luna 1 spacecraft.
4. Pioneer 4 traveled within 37,000 miles of the Moon and had sensors on board that would allow it to transmit photos of the lunar surface.
5. Unfortunately its sensors were not activated as it never came close enough to the Moon to trigger them due to a trajectory error.
6. The signal from Pioneer 4 was lost after 82 hours in space and 655,000 miles of travel, a record at the time for the farthest a man-made object had traveled through space.
The St. Lawrence Seaway, a joint US/Canadian venture, is completed linking the Great Lakes to the Atlantic OceanMore Information and Timeline For St. Lawrence Seaway
1. 1895 - The 1st joint US-Canadian Deep Waterways Commission is formed to study the possibility of a seaway
2. 1932 - The 4th Welland Canal is completed, marking the first step in the process to complete a modern seaway
3. 1932 - Canada and the United States sign the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Deep Waterway Treaty
4. 1949 - A 2nd joint US-Canadian Deep Waterways Commission is formed to further study the feasibility of a waterway due to increased public interest
5. 1951 - The St. Lawrence Seaway Authority Act and the International Rapids Power Development Act let Canadians navigate the Canadian side of the river
6. 1951 - The United States begins working on the Wiley-Dondero Canal to bypass the International Rapids
7. 1954 - The US and Canada both pass acts that allow for the development of the St. Lawrence Seaway
8. 1954 - Canada and the United States reach an agreement on construction plans, Canada pays $336.5 million of the $470.3 million costs
9. September 1954 - Construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway officially begins
10. 1958 - Construction deadlines are met with the Iroquois, Snell, and Eisenhower Locks
11. 1959 - The St. Lawrence Seaway is officially completed and opened on June 26th and links the Great Lakes to the rest of the world
12. April - The D'Iberville icebreaker starts the first through-transit of the Seaway
The building of the Seaway forced many communities to resettle as they were destroyed by flooding during construction. It has also caused serious harm to the ecology of the Great Lakes as non-native animals and plant-life (like Zebra Mussels) have been introduced from foreign ships.
The United States Navy launches the Vanguard 2 satellite during February. The Vanguard 2 satellite was the first successful weather satellite and marked an important milestone in the space race between the Soviet Union and the United States. The purpose of the satellite was to measure the atmospheric density over the lifetime of its orbit and the cloud-cover distribution during the daylight hours for a 19 day experiment. Vanguard 2 was a part of Project Vanguard which was also responsible for launching the first solar-powered satellite with Vanguard 1 in 1958.
The Antarctic Treaty is signed in Washington on December 1st. It was signed by twelve countries who had been active in the Antarctic region during the previous year which included the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, Norway, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Belgium, France, Argentina, Chile, and Australia. The purpose of the treaty was to guarantee peaceful use of the uninhabited continent for scientific purposes and global cooperation. It became effective in 1961 and has since been expanded to include a total of 53 countries.
The Soviet Union crashes the Luna 2 spacecraft into the Moon, making it the first man-made object to reach the Moon's surface. The Luna 2 (Lunik 2) was launched on September 12th, and after over thirty hours of flight it crashed into the surface of the Moon on September 14th.
The spacecraft carried Soviet pennants and several scientific instruments like a Geiger-counter to measure radiation and a magnetometer to measure magnetic fields. It ceased operation after impacting the Moon in the Palus Putredinus region.
This was one of the first major events in the space race between the United States and Soviet Union. The United States did not successfully land a spacecraft on the Moon under the Ranger 4 in 1962.
The iconic religious epic and award-winning film "Ben-Hur" premieres on the 18th of November, . The film starred legendary actor Charlton Heston and was directed by William Wyler. At the time of its production, the movie had the largest budget of any movie ever made with an estimated $15.9 million spent. It also had some of the largest sets ever created at the time. The film was a remake of a silent film from the 1920's and was also adapted from a novel by Lew Wallace. Ben-Hur was a huge financial and critical success as the film won eleven Academy Awards.
The iconic science fiction television series "The Twilight Zone" airs for the first time on October 2nd, on the CBS television network. The Twilight Zone was created and hosted by the talented screenwriter Rod Serling. The Twilight Zone still ranks as one of the most unique and best written television shows in TV history. It ran for five seasons until 1964 and had a total of 156 episodes. Of those 156 episodes, 92 were written by Serling himself and many of them contain some of the most memorable television moments. The show consisted of sci-fi and supernatural mysteries in an anthology setting and featured many then unknown actors who would later become famous, like Ron Howard, Dennis Hopper, Robert Redford and William Shatner.
NASA introduces America's first astronauts to the world including John H. Glenn Jr, and Alan Shepard Jr.More Information for the Mercury Seven
NASA introduces the first group of astronauts, known as the Mercury Seven, during April . The astronauts were Alan Shepard, John Glenn, Walter Schirra, Donald Slayton, Virgil "Gus" Grissom, L. Gordon Cooper, and M. Scott Carpenter. The group consisted of military aviators, 3 from the Navy, 3 from the Air Force, and 1 from the Marine Corps. The astronauts took part in the United States’ first human space flight program, Project Mercury. Many of the men would also go on to take part in future NASA projects such as the Gemini program and the Apollo program. Some notable achievements by the Mercury Seven included Alan Shepard becoming the first American in space and John Glenn becoming the first American to orbit the Earth.
September 23rd, Newark, NJ
October 3rd, Seattle, WA
October 7th, London, United Kingdom
June 11th, Oxford, United Kingdom
April 17th, Sheffield, United Kingdom
April 15th, London, United Kingdom
November 19th, Boston, MA
June 7th, Columbus, IN
August 14th, Lansing, MI
Boeing 707 Jet Airliner comes into service cutting 8 hrs from transatlantic Flight
USSR Luna 2 crashes onto the Moon as the first man-made object and Luna 3 sends back first photos of the far side of Earth's Moon
First Pictures Of Earth From Space Taken By Explorer 6
IBM shipped the transistor-based IBM 1401 mainframe.
Full size hovercraft, the SR-N1 by Sir Christopher Cockerell tested for the first time on June 11th at Cowes on the Isle of Wight
Xerox launches the first commercial copier
US Launches first Weather Station in Space
First Section of M1 Motorway from London to Birmingham Opens
De Beers manufactures a synthetic Diamond
QANTAS introduces the Boeing 707 on its Sydney-San Francisco route, the first transpacific service flown by jet.
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Microchip USA by Jack Kilby
Etch A Sketch France by Arthur Grandjean
Computer Modem USA
Lunar Probe Russia Lunik I passed the Moon;
Lunar Probe Russia Lunik II crashed on the Moon;
Lunar Probe Russia Lunik III photographed the far side of the Moon
The Guggenheim Museum designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in New York City is completed
Mattel's Barbie Doll is Launched
Alaska becomes the 49th State of the United States
The new Labor Reform Act passed to control union powers.
The Austin Seven ( Mini ) from the British Motor Corporation goes on sale for £500 August 30th
Hudson and Nash join on January 14th to become AMC (American Motors Association )
Archbishop Makarios is elected president of the Independent Cyprus Republic
The United Kingdom grants Cyprus its independence.
Flood in Taiwan leaves 2,000 dead.
US Unemployment reaches 1.4 million
Typhoon Vera with winds over 160 mph strikes Japanese island of Honshu, killing nearly 5,000 people.
Direct Dial Payphones Introduced In The UK
Southend Pier Pavilion is destroyed by fire
An International agreement is signed to preserve Antartica
Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev argue about advantages of communism and capitalism in a Kitchen known as the ( Kitchen Debate ) on July 24th
The first known human with HIV dies in Congo.
Ecuador President declares martial law following riots in the countries capitol.
Australia -- Prime Minister - Sir Robert Menzies --
Brazil -- President - Juscelino Kubitschek --
Canada -- Prime Minister - John Diefenbaker --
China -- Chairman of the People's Republic of China - Liu Shaoqi --
France -- President - René Coty -- Till 8 January
France -- President - Charles de Gaulle -- From 8 January
Germany -- Chancellor - Konrad Adenauer --
India -- Prime Minister - Jawahar Lal Nehru --
Italy -- Prime Minister - Adone Zoli -- Till 1 July
Italy -- Prime Minister - Amintore Fanfani -- Till 15 February
Italy -- Prime Minister - Antonio Segni -- From 15 February
Japan -- Prime Minister - Nobusuke Kishi --
Mexico -- President - Adolfo Ruiz Cortines -- Till 30 November
Mexico -- President - Adolfo López Mateos -- From 30 November
Russia / Soviet Union -- First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union - Nikita Khrushchev --
South Africa -- Prime Minister - Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom -- Till 24 August
South Africa -- Prime Minister - Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd -- From 24 August
United States -- President - Dwight D. Eisenhower --
United Kingdom -- Prime Minister - Harold Macmillan --