1925 : John T. Scopes, a science teacher in Tennessee, was charged with violating the state's Butler Act, which made it illegal to teach evolution in Tennessee schools. The trial was based on the charge he did unlawfully and willfully teach in Tennessee schools certain theories that deny the story of the divine creation of man as told in the Bible. He was found guilty on July 21st and received a $100 fine.
1985 : The Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior is sunk when French agents plant a bomb on the hull of the boat while docked in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. The Rainbow Warrior had been preparing for a protest voyage to the French nuclear test site in the South Pacific.
1924 : With each day the rebellion by well armed rebels and guerrillas is gaining new converts in cities other than San Paulo with each day and many warn government forces are losing control of more areas.
1938 : Aviator Howard Hughes makes a record flight around the world. He completed the trip in just 91 hours, breaking the previous record by more than four days. Taking off from New York City in a Lockheed Super Electra he continued to Paris, Moscow, Omsk, Yakutsk, Anchorage, Minneapolis, ending back at New York City.
1940 : The Germans Luftwaffe begin bombing raids against Great Britain, signaling the start of the Battle of Britain, the bombing continued over major Ports and cities across the UK for 3 months and the Royal Air Force (RAF) Spitfires and Hurricanes try to combat German Bf 109E while also trying to stop German Bombers (Junkers Ju 87) reaching their destinations to drop their bombs, the new introduction of Radar along the English coast provided much needed intelligence for UK fighter pilots. Winston Churchill made many memorable speeches in World War II but one of the sentences that is his famous speech where he used the words "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", referring to the allied pilots who fought against the German pilots in the Battle of Britain.
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1941 : 1,600 Jews are forced into a barn in Jedwabne, Poland by the local villagers and burned to death.
1943 : Allies begin their invasion of Axis controlled Europe with landings on the island of Sicily "Operation Husky."
1958 : An earthquake hit north of Juneau in Alaska causing a tidal wave that completely covered a small island and 3 people were drowned on the island while picking wild strawberries.
1962 : Telstar, the world's first communications satellite a privately sponsored space launch was launched into orbit . The Telstar communications satellite relays the first live transatlantic television signal and the worlds telephone call transmitted through space on July 23rd.
1964 : The Beatles release the "A Hard Day's Night" album as the soundtrack to their first film of the same name. The album included well known tracks which enter the charts as single's including: "A Hard Day's Night," "Tell Me Why," "Can't Buy Me Love," "And I Love Her."
1965 : The Rolling Stones have their first number 1 single on the US Billboard charts "I Can't Get No Satisfaction" from the album "Out of Our Heads."
1973 : The Bahamas gains independence from Great Britain after 300 years of British of British Rule, the Bahamas remain a part of the British Commonwealth. The new prime minister will be Lyndon Pindling whose Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) won the elections in September 1972.
1987 : An attack by an Iranian Gunboat on a US super tanker in the Persian Gulf has caused a big jump in oil prices to jump to $21.23 a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange.
1987 : Negotiations between the worlds biggest two nation trading partnership has reached a point where neither believe they can change policy and the free trade agreement between them could break down completely.
1991 : Boris N. Yeltsin takes office as the first elected president of the Russian republic.
1998 : The Diocese of Dallas agreed to pay $23.4 million to nine former altar boys who said they were molested by 52-year-old Rudolph 'Rudy' Kos, who is now serving a life sentence in prison.
1999 : The U.S. women's soccer team wins the final between the U.S. and China beating the Chinese team in a penalty shootout at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Calif making them the FIFA Women's World Cup champions.
2000 : UK 1 in 4 (25%) now use the internet at home up from 1 in 10 (10%) just 2 years ago.
U.S.A. 1 in 3 (33%) now use the Internet up from 1 in 5 (20%) just 2 years ago.
Figures for estimate of 2008 Internet usage: UK 2 in 3 (66%) now use the internet at home, U.S.A. 3 in 4 (73%) now use the Internet at home.
2002 : The United States Senate gives final approval to bury all of the country's nuclear waste in Yucca Mountain, Nevada about 80 miles from Las Vegas. The plans include storing 70,000 metric tons of radioactive material from America's 103 nuclear power plants deep inside the mountain for about 10,000 years. As of 2008 the project is still not accepting Nuclear waste due to legal challenges, funding, the transport of nuclear waste issues, and ongoing political pressure. Currently there are 130 separate nuclear waste sites scattered around the US.
2006 : Chlorine gas fumes were leaked from a rusty pipe at a chemical factory in Yinchuan City, China. The gas leak affected 164, mostly children and elderly, who were then hospitalized for breathing problems.
2006 : A passenger plane carrying 45 people crashed shortly after taking off from Multan. The Pakistan International Airlines plane suffered from technical difficulties, it lost contact with the control tower only two minutes after it took off and then erupted into flames.
2007 : Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that Canada will be asserting its territorial claim on Arctic waters north of the country. Harper planned to carryout his plans by announcing a $3 billion plan that would include the construction of new ice-breaking ships to patrol the area. The claims by Canada join other claims by Russia, Norway, the United States, and Denmark (via Greenland) because the Arctic includes sizable natural resources of oil, gas, minerals, fresh water, forest and Fishing. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, (1982) allows countries bordering the Arctic to a 370 kilometer (200 nautical mile) economic zone around their coasts.
2008 : Peacekeepers in the Darfur region of Sudan are hijacked when their convoy is ambushed in Darfur by hundreds of rebel gunmen on horses and with 40 trucks outfitted with mounted machine guns. The peacekeepers were outnumbered and suffered 7 dead and many more injured. The latest attack brings into question how long the Peace Keepers can stay in the region without more men and advanced equipment including helicopter gun ships to better protect those whose role it is to protect others. The President of Sudan Omar Hassan al-Bashir is facing indictments by the International Criminal Court for alleged atrocities and crimes against humanity in the region which left 450,000 dead and 2.5 million displaced.
2008 : Former aide to ex-President George W. Bush, Karl Rove, refused to appear a congressional hearing on this day. Rove was accused of politicizing the judicial branch of the United States government and was allegedly involved in the firing of United States attorneys for political reasons. Rove refused to show up based on the principle of executive privilege.
2009 : A 27 year old man from Spain was the first person to die of a fatal bull attack during the Pamplona running of the bulls in fourteen years.
2011 : A businessman from Chicago reached 10 million frequent flyer miles with United Airlines after twenty-nine years of loyalty to the airline company. As a reward for his feat he will never have to wait in line, always gets upgraded, and will have a plane named after him. Thomas Stuker had been on 5,962 flights before reaching this milestone.
2012 : The Episcopal Church has become the largest denomination in the US to bless same-sex relationships. During the church's general convention in Indianapolis, Indiana, nearly eighty-percent of the House of Deputies voted in favor of a thee year trial run of a same sex service to be called the "Witnessing and Blessing of a Lifelong Covenant," it had also been approved by the House of Bishops.
2013 : A landslide caused by heavy rain in the Sichuan province of China has buried between thirty and forty people. There have also been bridge collapses, mud slides, and flooding due to the rain.
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Born: July 10th, 1931, Chicago
Known For : An early fan of science fiction, Julian May ran a fan base for it while she was a teenager. The club was called Science Fiction International. She had Dune Roller published in 1951. For income purposes she had started to edit the scientific entries for a Chicago-based encyclopedia, and had edited several thousand entries for it between 1953-1957. She used pseudonyms in the publication of stories that related to famous monsters like Dracula or Frankenstein. In 1976 she started working on the Galactic Milieu stories, but waited until their prequel, The Many-Coloured Land, was published in 1981 before getting the initial ones into the shops (with Intervention published in 1987).