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World War II 1944France
- Operation Overlord, code named D-Day, commences with the landing of 155,000 Allied troops on the beaches of Normandy in France.
- Paris is liberated from Nazi occupation August 25th
1. France falls under German control in 1940 at the beginning of the war.
2. The efforts to free France from Nazi occupation begin in June of 1944 with the D-Day invasion of Normandy when Allied troops land on the beaches and start to make their way towards Paris.
3. More Allied troops land in southern France on August 15th, 1944 and make their way towards the Rhine river.
4. As the Allies make their push towards Paris, French resistance fighters begin an uprising in Paris.
5. By August 25th, 1944, the Allies and Free French forces enter Paris and by the end of the month the French government is handed over to the Free French troops.
6. Before the end of the year France is liberated from Nazi control and occupation.
- Allied troops attempt the largest airborne military operation with Operation Market Garden.
Allied troops attempt the largest airborne military operation in history (at the time) when the Battle of Arnhem (Operation Market Garden) begins on September 17th, 1944. The purpose of this operation was for Allied paratroopers to land in the Netherlands and take control of key bridges near the Rhine river from German forces. This was so that Allied troops could push through Germany and end the war much more quickly if successful.
Unfortunately, for the Allies, German troops were aware of their arrival ahead of time and had the time to organize against them and destroy many of the bridges prior to the paratroopers' landing. Some Allied forces made it to the Arnhem bridge but they were short on supplies and forced to abandon their plans, leaving Germany in control of the Rhine river at that time.
This mission was a fairly large failure for the Allies and many troops were killed and taken prisoner by the German troops.
- The Battle of Leyte Gulf takes place during October in the Philippines
The Battle of Leyte Gulf takes place during the month of October in 1944. The main battle took place between October 23rd and 26th and was considered one of the largest naval battles in world history. United States, Australian, and Filipino forces began the invasion of Japanese occupied Philippines by landing in the Leyte Gulf. The Japanese suffered heavy losses to their navy and it marked their first kamikaze aerial attacks. The Allies won the battle and their victory lead to the liberation of the Philippines. This was a turning point in the war against Japan as it effectively cut off their supply route in Southeast Asia and was a devastating loss to their naval forces with many of their ships destroyed and thousands killed.
- Mahatma Gandhi is released from jail.
Indian Independence activist and leader Mahatma Gandhi was released from jail in May of 1944. Gandhi had been arrested in August of 1942 after encouraging civil unrest and uprisings against the British at the height of World War II. Not long after his release, a failed assassination attempt was made on his life. Gandhi would live to see India achieve independence in August of 1947 but was soon killed after a successful assassination less than a year later in January of 1948 at the age of 78.
- Germany Launches the V1 rockets / Doodlebugs against London
- London is hit by a V2 rocket for the first time.
- The Battle of the Bulge beginning on December 16th h is one of the deadliest battles in World War II with 19,000 US soldiers killed.
In December of 1944, the Germans attempted to surprise the Allied armies as they traveled through the Ardennes. The German objective was to split the Allies up in a surprise attack. The battle began on December 16th of 1944 and continued until late January of 1945. As the Allies regrouped to fight back against the German attack, the line of defense took on the shape of a bulge, hence the name “Battle of the Bulge.” The Allies were caught off guard in the attack and tens of thousands of soldiers were lost in fierce fighting (estimated up to 100,000 casualties) during what was considered the bloodiest battle of World War II for the United States. Despite the losses the Allies were successful in neutralizing the German offensive and preventing Germany from recapturing Antwerp. As well as massively depleting German fuel and supply reserves.
- The Allies assemble the largest force of Air Power used who bombed railways and other targets in Germany
- The second Battle of Guam starts on July 21st
The second Battle of Guam begins on July 21st, 1944 when American troops fought Japanese troops to retake the island. Guam had been held by the United States since 1898 but it was captured by Japan on December 10th, 1941. During the battle the Japanese took heavy losses and the island was eventually secured by American forces on August 10th. After control of Guam was taken over by the United States, thousands of Japanese soldier remained, some in hiding. One soldier was found to be alive and hiding in a cave in 1972, nearly 30 years after the battle ended.
- Assassination Attempt on Hitler Fails
- 32 British Lancaster bombers sink the mighty German battleship Tirpitz.
- Polish Freedom Fighters fight to liberate Warsaw from German occupation ends with 18,000 soldiers killed and 150,000 civilians murdered.
- The Siege of Leningrad is finally broken after 872 days
- Russia and the Polish Home Army liberate Poland from Nazi occupation
- US Forces liberate Rome and Italy
- The US Bombs Tokyo for the first time with B-29 Super fortress bombers
What Events Happened in 1944UK
- In Britain the Education Act lifts the ban on women teachers marrying.
- Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes the only U.S. president to be elected to a fourth term.
1. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected to a fourth term as the president of The United States.
2. The election took place on the 7th of November, 1944. The incumbent president ran against his Republican rival Thomas E. Dewey.
3. Roosevelt won the election in a landslide after securing 432 electoral votes to his opponent’s 99 electoral votes.
4. Despite his decisive victory, this election was the closest out of his four total presidential elections.
5. This was FDR’s last term as the president of the United States as he died in office in April of 1945.
6. Soon after FDR’s death, the 22nd Amendment was passed by Congress to limit presidential terms to two.
7. The amendment was finally added to the U.S. Constitution in February of 1951.
- The Government gives back railroads to companies after labor disputes are settled
- The GI Bill of Rights is passed and signed into law by Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 22nd
- A 5.9 earthquake hits Central New York
- Meat Rationing Ended in USA
- TheOffice of Strategic Services (OSS) is Formed later to be changed to the the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
- Earthquake in San Juan, Argentina, kills 8000-10000 people
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use ) 1944
Kidney Dialysis Netherlands by Willem Kolff
Sunscreen USA by Benjamin Green
( he was trying to invent something to protect soldiers in the Second World War from Sunburn ). He then went on to create the Coppertone Company and the rest as they say is history
Popular Culture 1944
- Sir Henry Wood, aged 75, conducts his last Promenade Concert
- 15yr old Anne Frank is captured by the Germans and sent to a concentration camp
- Glenn Miller is reported missing.
Born This YearTim Rice November 10th
Danny DeVito November 17th
Diana Ross March 26th
George Lucas May 14th
Roger Daltrey March 1st -- Hammersmith, London, England
Steve Fossett April 22nd -- Jackson, Tennessee, U.S.
Joe Frazier January 12th -- Beaufort, South Carolina, U.S.
Gladys Knight May 28th -- Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Joe Frazier January 12th -- Beaufort, South Carolina, U.S.
Tony Orlando April 3rd -- Hell's Kitchen, New York City, New York, U.S.
Jerry Springer February 13th -- Highgate, London, England
Barry White September 12th -- Galveston, Texas, U.S.
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister John Curtin Brazil President Getúlio Vargas Canada Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King
Germany Chancellor Adolf Hitler
Italy Prime Minister Marshal Pietro Badoglio Till 18 June
Italy Prime Minister Ivanoe Bonomi From 18 June
Japan Prime Minister Hideki Tojo Till 22 July
Japan Prime Minister Kuniaki Koiso From 22 July
Mexico President Manuel Ávila Camacho Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill
United States Presidential Election 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic) Defeats Thomas E. Dewey (Republican)