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What Events Happened in 1935
- The Boulder (Hoover) Dam is completed.
1. The Reclamation Act is signed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902, it allows engineers to research how to control and use the Colorado River.
2. In 1920, the US Congress passed the Kinkaid Act, which asked for the Secretary of the Interior to look into the problems of the Imperial Valley.
3. The Fall-Davis report is given to the US Congress and it recommends building a dam on the Colorado river near Boulder Canyon in 1922.
4. The Boulder Canyon Project Act is passed by Congress and signed by President Calvin Coolidge in December of 1928.
5. Herbert Hoover takes over negotiations about the proposed dam and it moves forward when an agreement is reached between the seven basin states in 1929.
6. In 1931 bids for construction of the dam are placed and Six Companies are awarded the contract of $48,890,995.
7. Construction begins in 1932 when the Colorado River is diverted around the construction site.
8. On June 6th, 1933, the first concrete is poured for the construction of the Hoover Dam.
9. On May 29th, 1935, the last concrete is poured at the Hoover Dam.
10. The Boulder (Hoover) Dam is dedicated on September 30th of 1935.
11. By 1947, the Boulder Dam is officially named the Hoover Dam.
- The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act on April 8th creates The WPA or Works Progress Administration to create millions of jobs
1. The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 created the Works Progress Administration, one of the most well-known programs to come out of FDR's New Deal.
2. The WPA was a work-relief program that employed people to build airports, roads, bridges, public buildings and public parks.
3. It was renamed the Works Projects Administration in 1939 and was decreased in size.
4. In 1943 the public program was ended because of WWII and a worker shortage.
5. Overall, it had offered employment to nearly 9 million people during its run and spent over eleven billion dollars.
6. The WPA employed both men and women and it also contributed to the arts in the USA by employing artists to create sculptures and mosaics that would decorate parks and public buildings.
- President Roosevelt signs the US Social Security Act on October 22nd Providing Unemployment compensation and pensions for the elderly.
1. Several states begin enacting old-age pension laws and unemployment insurance throughout the early 1930s in the wake of the Great Depression.
2. The American Association for Old-Age Security becomes the American Association for Social Security in 1933, marking one of the first meaningful uses of the term "Social Security" in the United States.
3. The Committee on Economic Security is created by President Roosevelt in June of 1934. The committee was created with the intention of studying economic security problems and recommending legislation regarding those problems. The creation of this committee was FDR's Executive Order Number 6757.
4. The Committee meets for the first time in August and the National Conference on Economic Security meets in November of 1934. The conference allows the public to discuss issues and needs. The Committee on Economic Security releases its report in January of 1935.
5. The Economic Security Bill is then introduced to the US Congress on January 17th of 1935. The Committee on Economic Security had recommended a Federal old-age insurance, unemployment insurance through the States, public health programs for women and children, and other general social welfare ideas.
6. The name of the Economic Security Bill was changed to the Social Security Bill in March and it was then re-introduced to the US House of Representatives in April, replacing the former bill.
7. On April 15th, 1935, the Social Security Act was passed in the House of Representatives. It was then passed by the US Senate on June 19th of 1935. It was signed by President Roosevelt on August 14th, 1935, becoming law.
8. Authority was given to create and assign Social Security numbers after the Department of the Treasury approved the decision in November of 1936.
9. The first taxes to contribute to Social Security were collected in 1937, the same year that the first one-time payments were made.
10. Originally, the Social Security program was meant to help with state welfare programs and a Federal old-age pension plan. The program has changed and varied throughout the years. It wasn't until 1994 that the Social Security Administration became and independent agency.
- The Great Plains are struck by one of the worst Dust Storms in U.S. history during April.
On April 14th of 1935 the Great Plains were struck by one of the worst dust storms in United States history. The storm would come to be known as “Black Sunday” as it passed across the region, further devastating farms and infrastructure already ravaged by the Dust Bowl. The day started calmly and the weather seemed clear and many local people spent the day outside and welcomed the day as a break from the constant dust storms of the previous month but by the afternoon the weather quickly changed and a massive black cloud swiftly made its way into the region. The storm caught many people off guard and they had to race against the storm to find shelter.
- Italy invades Ethiopia and the Second Italo-Ethiopian War begins in October.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War begins during October of 1935 when Italy invades Ethiopia in an attempt by Mussolini to expand the Italian empire. The invasion of Ethiopia by Italy highlighted the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations. The League had been unable to forestall Italy’s attack and unable to agree on what actions to take against the belligerent nation. The League of Nations tried to sanction Italy for the conflict but the sanctions remained largely ineffective. The war ended in May of 1936 when Italian troops took the capital of Addis Ababa forcing the Ethiopian Emperor, Haile Selassie, into exile. Italy continued to occupy Ethiopia until World War II when the nation was liberated by Allied troops in 1941 and Selassie returned to power.
- The Luftwaffe is created as Germany's air force and Germany announces rearmament in violation of the Versailles Treaty.
- Persia is renamed as Iran
- Compulsory Driving Test is introduced in England on June 1st
- Sir Malcolm Campbell breaks the 300 mph barrier to set a new land speed world record.
Sir Malcolm Campbell created a new land speed record in September of 1935. While making runs in his experimental car “Bluebird,” at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, Campbell broke the land speed record that he had previously set earlier in the year. The old record of 276.82 miles per hour was smashed as he reached 301.129 miles per hour. After completing this feat, Sir Malcolm Campbell announced he would retire from land speed racing as he had accomplished his goal of reaching 300 miles per hour. Campbell had held the world record nine times during his career.
- Starting in 1935 Your Hit Parade was an American Radio Show featuring the most popular and bestselling songs of the week
1. 1935 Your Hit Parade began on NBC April 20th
2. The first number one song on the first episode was "Soon" by Bing Crosby
3. The show was known by many other names including "Hit Parade," "The Hit Parade," and the "The Lucky Strike Hit Parade" Lucky Strike
4. The show was a 1 hour show playing the 15 most popular songs from that week
The show ran on radio from 1935 to 1955 it was carried on both NBC and CBS over the years it changed to a countdown format , the show started on NBC television in 1950 and ran to 1959
- Amelia Earhart flies solo across the Pacific.
1. The groundbreaking female aviator, Amelia Earhart, became the first person to fly solo across the Pacific ocean on January 11, 1935 as she traveled from Honolulu, Hawaii to Oakland, California.
2. This feat also made her the first person to have flown solo across both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
3. Earhart had began her flight career in 1921 and had set herself a goal of flying solo around the world.
4. Unfortunately, in 1937, as she was nearing completion of her goal, her plane was lost on its way to a small Pacific island and she was never found or seen again, and presumed dead.
- The first technicolor Mickey Mouse short film is released.
The iconic character Mickey Mouse appears in an animated short in technicolor for the first time with the release of “The Band Concert” on February 23, 1935. The animated short film featured Mickey Mouse as he tried to conduct a concert of the William Tell Overture but is largely unsuccessful as he is continually interrupted by Donald Duck and other distractions. While the film is only a total of nine minutes long it is considered, by many modern animators, to be one of the greatest cartoon films ever made. Mickey Mouse creator Walt Disney produced the animated film, Clarence Nash voiced Donald Duck, and it was directed by Wilfred Jackson.
- The China Clipper makes the first Pacific Airmail delivery.
Pan-American Airway’s China Clipper, a Martin M-130 flying boat, went on the first United States’ Trans-Pacific airmail delivery flight during November of 1935. The plane, piloted by Edwin Musick, left from Alameda, California and landed in Manilla, Philippines, its final destination, after seven days of travel. The first Trans-Pacific airmail service successfully delivered 110,000 pieces of mail and after its first delivery the China Clipper picked up mail intended for the United States and returned home another seven days later with the commercial seaplane having successfully completed the full trip.
- President Roosevelt Revenue Act often referred to as the Wealth Tax Act begins
- The Looney Tunes character of "Porky Pig" was first introduced.
In March of 1935, the popular Looney Tunes character “Porky Pig” made his first appearance in an animated short called “I Haven’t Got a Hat.” The character was designed by the animator Bob Clampett and was originally voiced by Joe Dougherty who was then replaced by Mel Blanc in 1937. Porky Pig was the first widely popular Looney Tunes character to be created by Warner Brothers and was recognized by his signature comedic stutter and shy demeanor. Not too long after Porky’s debut, they introduced his comedic foil with the creation of Daffy Duck in 1937 and by 1940 their newest character, Bugs Bunny, became the star of the show.
- The great Labor Day Category 5 Hurricane with winds approaching 185 mph strikes Florida Keys on September 2nd
- FDR signs the 1935 Neutrality Act into law, preventing the U.S. exportation of war related items to nations at war.
United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Neutrality Act of 1935 into law during the month of August. The Neutrality Act stopped the exportation of war items like arms and ammunition from the United States to nations at war. The act was born out of the desire to keep the United States out of any impending European conflicts. A wave of Fascism had begun sweeping over Europe as several dictators took power and started to gear up for war. American citizens were afraid of becoming involved in these conflicts as the devastating costs of World War I were still in the public’s mind. The president had initially opposed the Neutrality Act but eventually bent to the will of the people in support of taking these, ultimately useless, steps.
- Sir Malcolm Campbell breaks the 300 mph barrier to set a new land speed world record
- The China Clipper makes the first Pacific Airmail delivery
- Penguin produce the first paperback books.
In July of 1935, Penguin releases their first paperback books, revolutionizing the publishing industry by bringing affordable books to the English-reading masses. The Penguin publishing company was created in England by Allen Lane who had been previously working for the publishing company “The Bodley Head.” He had wanted to create affordable and easily accessible versions of contemporary literature after having been disappointed by the selection of available affordable non-fiction and fiction works at the time. During July of 1935 the company released their first ten paperbacks and within a year they had sold over one million books in England.
- Babe Ruth hit the 714th and final home run of his career.
1. George Herman Ruth Jr. Began playing professional baseball at the age of 19 when he was signed to the Baltimore Orioles in 1914.
2. He was soon sold to the Boston Red Sox where he began to develop into a star player until he was traded to the New York Yankees in 1919.
3. Ruth remained with the Yankees until 1934 where he dominated the game, helping the team win four World Series and seven Pennants.
4. Legendary baseball player Babe Ruth retired from the sport in June of 1935.
5. He spent his final season with the Boston Braves and upon his retirement held a 714 home run record that was broken by Hank Aaron in 1974, nearly forty years after it was set.
- 1,200,000 people face starvation in Illinois due to lack of funding.
- First Public Housing Project launched in New York
- Earthquake destroys Quetta in modern-day Pakistan - 26,000 dead
- First Orange Bowl
Popular Culture 1935
- Alcoholics Anonymous is founded on June 10th in New York City
- First Canned beer goes on sale
- Babe Ruth hit the 714th and final home run of his career
- Parker Brothers releases the board game Monopoly
- Porgy and Bess opens in New York
- Penguin produce the first paperback books
Born This YearJerry Lee Lewis September 29th
Julie Andrews October 1st
Luciano Pavarotti October 12th
Gary Player November 1st
Woody Allen December 1st -- Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Sonny Bono February 16th -- Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
Dalai Lama 14thJuly 6th -- Taktser, Amdo, Tibet
Elvis Presley January 8th -- Tupelo, Mississippi, United States
Donald Sutherland July 17th -- Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada
Gene Vincent February 11th -- Norfolk, Virginia, United States
- The Peoples car ( Volkswagen Beetle ) is launched in Germany
- First Experimental Radar is developed in UK
- GE Starts selling the first Fluorescent Tube for light
- On July 19th the First Parking Meters in Oklahoma City designed by Carl C Magee
- Toyota Cars are launched in Japan
Helicopter USA by Igor I. Sikorsky )
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister Joseph Lyons Brazil President Getúlio Vargas Canada Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett till October 23,
Canada Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King From October 23,
Germany Chancellor Adolf Hitler
Italy Prime Minister Benito Mussolini
Japan Prime Minister Keisuke Okada Mexico President Lázaro Cárdenas Russia / Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin South Africa Prime Minister James Barry Munnik Hertzog United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt United Kingdom Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald Till 7 June
United Kingdom Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin From 7 June
British General Election 1935 Stanley Baldwin ( Conservative ) defeats Clement Attlee ( Labour ) and Sir Herbert Samuel ( Liberal )
Following the outbreak of World War II General Elections are suspended and the next elections are not held until 1945
Canadian Federal Election 1935 William Lyon Mackenzie King ( Liberal ) defeats Richard Bennett ( Conservative ).