1923 Year In History including Major World Events include Mount Etna eruption, Great Kanto earthquake, Insulin is introduced for treatment of Diabetes, In Popular Culture Movies include The Ten Commandments and Hunchback of Notre Dame and the First baseball game is played on April 18th at Yankee Stadium, In Technology The worlds first domestic refrigerator is sold in Sweden. .
King Tutankhamun's Burial Chamber opened by Howard Carter.
More Information and Timeline for King Tut Burial Chamber Opened
1. Howard Carter is sent to Egypt by the Egypt Exploration Fund in 1891 to help excavate and catalog tombs for Percy Newberry at Beni Hasan. He works at various other sites with Egyptologists like Flinders Petrie until 1899.
2. In 1899, Carter is appointed the first chief inspector of the Egyptian Antiquities Service where he supervises some excavations at Thebes until 1904.
3. Carter is transferred to the Inspectorate of Lower Egypt in 1904, and he discovers the tombs of Thutmose I and Thutmose III. He resigns in 1905.
4. Lord Carnarvon employs Carter to supervise excavations in 1907.
5. Lord Carnarvon begins financing Carter's work in the Valley of the Kings in 1914 but work is interrupted by World War I and they could not continue until 1917.
6. Carter's team finds the steps of Tutankhamun's tomb on November 4th of 1922.
7. Carter digs into the top left corner of the doorway of the tomb on November 26th, 1922 with Carnarvon and many others there to witness. He can see that many treasures are still there.
8. After cataloging the antechamber, Carter opens the sealed doorway to King Tutankhamun's burial chamber on February 16th and sees the sarcophagus.
9. The clearance and record taking of the tomb lasts until 1932.
First Home Game Played at the Original Yankee Stadium home of the New York Yankees between the New York Yankees and the Boston Red Sox
More Information and Timeline For Original Yankee Stadium
1. Prior 1920 New York Yankees share the Polo Grounds in northern Manhattan with the New York Giants
2. 1920: New York Giants are upset that New York Yankees with the addition of Babe Ruth to the team draw higher attendance than the New York Giants .
3. 1920: The Giants issue an eviction notice to the Yankees and rescind
4. 1921: The Yankees owners Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston and Jacob Ruppert decide to build their own stadium with 60,000 seating capacity
5. 1921: They buy a 10 acre lumberyard from William Waldorf Astor at East 161st Street & River Avenue Bronx, New York City,
6. 1922: Construction begins on May 5th and is completed in less than a year at a cost of $2.4 million (over $30 million in todays money ).
7. 1923: The first home game is played at the Yankee Stadium home of the New York Yankees between the New York Yankees and the Boston Red Sox, at the time it had the largest number of seats of any Ball park in America , the first game ended with the Yankees beating the Boston Red Sox, by a score of 4-1, with Babe Ruth hitting a three-run home run into the right-field stands .
7. The Stadiums nick names included "The House That Ruth Built" and "The Cathedral of Baseball". and was hailed as a one-of-a-kind facility in the country for its size. Over the course of its history, it became one of the most famous venues in the United States, hosting multiple Baseball World Series games, boxing matches, concerts, and three Papal Masses. History of Baseball.
The Warner Brothers established their film studio company during April. The brothers Albert, Samuel, Jack, and Harry had previously worked together after founding the Duquesne Amusment & Supply Company in Pittsburgh in 1904. By the 1910s they had transitioned to film production and distribution. With a loan from banker Motley Flint, the studio was purchased on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood, California and formally incorporated as Warner Brothers Pictures, Incorporated.
1. The United States Supreme Court decides the case of Meyer vs. the State of Nebraska during June of 1923.
2. In 1919, the state of Nebraska passed the Siman Act which restricted the use of foreign languages and the study of foreign languages in schools, it was largely a reaction to anti-German sentiment following World War I.
3. Educator Robert T. Meyer was prosecuted under the act for teaching German in a Lutheran school.
4. His defense argued that the law violated the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment in that it restricted an individual’s liberty.
5. The Court sided with Meyer in a 7 to 2 decision, stating that the state’s law was unconstitutional.
The very first issue of Time Magazine was published during March. The magazine was developed by journalists Henry Luce and Briton Hadden and was the first news magazine published every week in the United States. The first issue featured former US Speaker of the House Joseph G. Cannon on the cover and contained a variety of short articles related to different topics. Over the years it gained a large circulation and became one of the most influential and popular news periodicals during the twentieth century.
The worlds first domestic refrigerator is sold in Sweden.
The worlds first portable radio is developed in the US.
Inventions, Inventors and Country (or attributed to First Use)
Television - - Scotland by - - John Logie Baird
Hearing Aid - - England
Ultracentrifuge - - Sweden - - by The Suedberg - separates proteins
The Great Kanto earthquake devastate the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama on September 1st leaving over 100,000 fatalities.
A 8.2 Richter Scale magnitude earthquake hits the Kanto Plain on the island of Honshu in Japan at about noon on September 1st, It was the most powerful earthquake to hit the region at that time in history.
A few minutes after the quake, a forty-foot tsunami swept the region, killing many and destroying a lot of property. After the tsunami, fires began in the wooden houses and buildings in Tokyo and Yokohama.
Up to 140,000 people were killed and many more injured in the devastation and nearly all of Yokohama, Tokyo and the area surrounding were destroyed.
Adolf Hitler leads the Nazi Party in failed coup attempt in Germany.
Future German dictator Adolf Hitler attempted to overthrow the Bavarian government in what was called the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich on November 8th Hitler led about two-thousand Nazi party members in a failed coup against the German government in the city center of Munich. The Nazis were confronted by police and a total of twenty people were killed in the violence. Hitler was soon arrested and charged with treason. After his trial he was sentenced to five years in prison but was released only nine months later. His unsuccessful attempt at bringing the Nazi party to power caused Hitler to rethink his propaganda strategies and eventually the Nazi party would take over Germany in the 1930s with dire consequences for the world.
Insulin is introduced for treatment of Diabetes.
More Information and Timeline for Discovery of Insulin
1. German medical student Raul Langerhans discovers cell clusters with unknown functions in pancreatic tissues in 1869.
2. Oskar Minkowski, a physiologist, and Joseph von Mering, a physician experiment with pancreatic functions in dogs in 1889. There are able to figure out two functions of the pancreas, the production of digestive juices and the production of a sugar glucose regulator.
3. Romanian professor Nicolae Paulescu develops a pancreatic extract that normalizes blood sugar levels in a diabetic dog in 1916, but his work is interrupted by World War I.
4. Dr. Frederick Banting gets the idea to create a pancreatic extract that would have anti-diabetic attributes in 1920.
5. Banting teams up with Professor John Macleod, student Charles Best, and biochemist Bertram Collip at the University of Toronto in 1921 and they begin a series of studies that lead to the discovery of insulin.
6. Fourteen year old Leonard Thompson is the first person with diabetes to receive an insulin treatment in January of 1922. Thompson suffers an allergic reaction to the first dose but after the scientists adjust the injection and test a second dose, the results are successful. They continue to administer insulin to volunteer patients with similar results.
7. The Eli Lilly Company hears about the study and its success and offers assistance in the mass production of insulin for the treatment of diabetes. Banting and colleagues eventually accept their offer.
8. Banting and Macleod are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of insulin
9. By late 1922 and early 1923, the Eli Lilly Company makes a breakthrough in the mass production of highly refined insulin and offers it for sale to the public to treat diabetes, a disorder that had been previously thought of as fatal.
The Irish Civil War comes to an end in May of 1923. It began during June of 1922. The conflict was fought between the Irish Nationalists and the Irish Republicans. The war erupted over the Anglo-Irish Treaty which established the Irish Free State. Pro-Treaty nationalists were backed by the United Kingdom who wanted Northern Ireland to remain linked to the United Kingdom. The civil war ended with the Pro-Treaty forces claiming victory in the end.
The first successful flight of an autogyro, the predecessor to a helicopter, takes place.
Spanish inventor Juan de la Cierva conducts the first successful flight of his invention, the autogyro, in January . The autogyro was a rotary wing aircraft that became the predecessor to the helicopter. Cierva previously made several versions of his autogyro that had not been successful, but the design he figured out the correct balance and the aircraft flew in a controlled and safe manner.
The Republic of Turkey was created on October 29th After World War I, the Allies and Ottoman Empire agreed to the Treaty of Sevres in 1920. The Turkish National Movement was angered by the terms of the first treaty which created partitions and gave territory to the Allies. The Turkish War of Independence began but ended in July with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne. The treaty dissolved the Ottoman Empire and created new borders for the country. In October, the Republic of Turkey was established under the first president Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and the capital was moved to Ankara.
Time Magazine is launched on March 3rd .
The Hunchback of Notre Dame, starring Lon Chaney is released.
Women's One Piece swimming suits begin to be worn.
The Ten Commandments directed by Cecil B. DeMille.vThe Explosion of recordings of African American musicians including the great Louis Armstrong.
Mount Etna volcano erupts on June 19th - 60,000 made homeless.
First Le Mans 24 hour race run in France.
Rosewood, Fla Massacre, the town is burnt to the ground by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
Series of Tornadoes strike Iowa and Nebraska killing 20
First baseball game played at Yankee Stadium.
Royal Wedding of Albert Duke of York to Lady Elizabeth Rowes-Lyon in Westminster Abbey.
Colliery disaster happens when 70 miners are drowned after a mine wall caves in.
Construction starts on the Sydney Harbor Bridge.
Alan Shepard - - November 18th
Bob Dole - - July 22nd
Charlton Heston - - October 4th
Norman Mailer - - January31st
Australia - - Prime Minister - - Billy Hughes - - until February 9th
Australia - - Prime Minister - - Stanley Bruce - - From 9 February
Brazil - - President - - Artur Bernardes - -
Canada - - Prime Minister - - William Lyon Mackenzie King - -
Italy - - Prime Minister - - Benito Mussolini - -
Japan - - Prime Minister - - Tomosaburo Kato - - until 24 August
Japan - - Prime Minister - - Gonbee Yamamoto - - From 2 September
Mexico - - President - - lvaro Obreg - -
Russia / Soviet Union - - Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars - - Vladimir Lenin
South Africa - - Prime Minister - - Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts - -
United States - - President - - Warren G. Harding - - until August 2
United States - - President - - Calvin Coolidge - - From August 2
United Kingdom - - Prime Minister - - Andrew Bonar Law - - until May 20th
United Kingdom - - Prime Minister - - Stanley Baldwin - - From 23 May