Popular Culture 1923U.S.
- Time Magazine is launched on March 3rd .
- The Hunchback of Notre Dame, starring Lon Chaney is released.
- Women's One Piece swimming suits begin to be worn.
- The Ten Commandments directed by Cecil B. DeMille.
- The Explosion of recordings of African American musicians including the great Louis Armstrong.
Born This YearAlan Shepard November 18th
Bob Dole July 22nd
Charlton Heston October 4th
Norman Mailer January 31st
- Mount Etna volcano erupts on June 19th - 60,000 made homeless.
- First Le Mans 24 hour race run in France.
- King Tutankhamun's Burial Chamber opened by Howard Carter.
1. Howard Carter is sent to Egypt by the Egypt Exploration Fund in 1891 to help excavate and catalog tombs for Percy Newberry at Beni Hasan. He works at various other sites with Egyptologists like Flinders Petrie until 1899.
2. In 1899, Carter is appointed the first chief inspector of the Egyptian Antiquities Service where he supervises some excavations at Thebes until 1904.
3. Carter is transferred to the Inspectorate of Lower Egypt in 1904, and he discovers the tombs of Thutmose I and Thutmose III. He resigns in 1905.
4. Lord Carnarvon employs Carter to supervise excavations in 1907.
5. Lord Carnarvon begins financing Carter's work in the Valley of the Kings in 1914 but work is interrupted by World War I and they could not continue until 1917.
6. Carter's team finds the steps of Tutankhamun's tomb on November 4th of 1922.
7. Carter digs into the top left corner of the doorway of the tomb on November 26th, 1922 with Carnarvon and many others there to witness. He can see that many treasures are still there.
8. After cataloging the antechamber, Carter opens the sealed doorway to King Tutankhamun's burial chamber on February 16th, 1923 and sees the sarcophagus.
9. The clearance and record taking of the tomb lasts until 1932.
- Calvin Coolidge was sworn in as president following the death of President Warren Harding.
- The Great Kanto earthquake devastate the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama on September 1st leaving over 100,000 fatalities.
A 8.2 Richter Scale magnitude earthquake hits the Kanto Plain on the island of Honshu in Japan at about noon on September 1st, It was the most powerful earthquake to hit the region at that time in history.
A few minutes after the quake, a forty-foot tsunami swept the region, killing many and destroying a lot of property. After the tsunami, fires began in the wooden houses and buildings in Tokyo and Yokohama.
Up to 140,000 people were killed and many more injured in the devastation and nearly all of Yokohama, Tokyo and the area surrounding were destroyed.
- Adolf Hitler leads the Nazi Party in failed coup d'état attempt in Germany.
Future German dictator Adolf Hitler attempted to overthrow the Bavarian government in what was called the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich on November 8, 1923. Hitler led about two-thousand Nazi party members in a failed coup d’etat against the German government in the city center of Munich. The Nazis were confronted by police and a total of twenty people were killed in the violence. Hitler was soon arrested and charged with treason. After his trial he was sentenced to five years in prison but was released only nine months later. His unsuccessful attempt at bringing the Nazi party to power caused Hitler to rethink his propaganda strategies and eventually the Nazi party would take over Germany in the 1930s with dire consequences for the world.
- Rosewood, Fla Massacre, the town is burnt to the ground by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
- Series of Tornadoes strike Iowa and Nebraska killing 20
- First baseball game played at Yankee Stadium.
- Royal Wedding of Albert Duke of York to Lady Elizabeth Rowes-Lyon in Westminster Abbey.
- Colliery disaster happens when 70 miners are drowned after a mine wall caves in.
- Mustafa Kemal Atatürk becomes the first President of the Republic of Turkey on October 29th
- Insulin is introduced for treatment of Diabetes.
1. German medical student Raul Langerhans discovers cell clusters with unknown functions in pancreatic tissues in 1869.
2. Oskar Minkowski, a physiologist, and Joseph von Mering, a physician experiment with pancreatic functions in dogs in 1889. There are able to figure out two functions of the pancreas, the production of digestive juices and the production of a sugar glucose regulator.
3. Romanian professor Nicolae Paulescu develops a pancreatic extract that normalizes blood sugar levels in a diabetic dog in 1916, but his work is interrupted by World War I.
4. Dr. Frederick Banting gets the idea to create a pancreatic extract that would have anti-diabetic attributes in 1920.
5. Banting teams up with Professor John Macleod, student Charles Best, and biochemist Bertram Collip at the University of Toronto in 1921 and they begin a series of studies that lead to the discovery of insulin.
6. Fourteen year old Leonard Thompson is the first person with diabetes to receive an insulin treatment in January of 1922. Thompson suffers an allergic reaction to the first dose but after the scientists adjust the injection and test a second dose, the results are successful. They continue to administer insulin to volunteer patients with similar results.
7. The Eli Lilly Company hears about the study and its success and offers assistance in the mass production of insulin for the treatment of diabetes. Banting and colleagues eventually accept their offer.
8. Banting and Macleod are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of insulin
9. By late 1922 and early 1923, the Eli Lilly Company makes a breakthrough in the mass production of highly refined insulin and offers it for sale to the public to treat diabetes, a disorder that had been previously thought of as fatal.
- The first successful flight of an autogyro, the predecessor to a helicopter, takes place.
Spanish inventor Juan de la Cierva conducts the first successful flight of his invention, the autogyro, in January of 1923. The autogyro was a rotary wing aircraft that became the predecessor to the helicopter. Cierva previously made several versions of his autogyro that had not been successful, but in his 1923 design he figured out the correct balance and the aircraft flew in a controlled and safe manner.
- Construction starts on the Sydney Harbor Bridge.
- The worlds first domestic refrigerator is sold in Sweden.
- The worlds first portable radio is developed in the US.
Inventions, Inventors and Country (or attributed to First Use)
Television Scotland by John Logie Baird
Hearing Aid England
Ultracentrifuge Sweden by The Suedberg - separates proteins
1923 Mens and Womens Fashion ClothesPart of our Collection of Clothing From The 1920's
Major World Political LeadersAustralia Prime Minister Billy Hughes until 9 February
Australia Prime Minister Stanley Bruce From 9 February
Brazil President Artur Bernardes Canada Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King
Italy Prime Minister Benito Mussolini
Japan Prime Minister Tomosaburō Katō until 24 August
Japan Prime MinisterGonbee Yamamoto From 2 September
Mexico President Álvaro Obregón Russia / Soviet Union
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars Vladimir Lenin South Africa Prime Minister Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts United States President Warren G. Harding until August 2
United States President Calvin Coolidge From August 2
United Kingdom Prime Minister Andrew Bonar Law until 20 May
United Kingdom Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin From 23 May
British General Election 1923 Stanley Baldwin (Conservative) defeats Ramsay MacDonald (Labor) and H. H. Asquith (Liberal).